Agbi ch10

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akowalsk
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205181
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Agbi ch10
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2013-03-05 16:36:08
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agbi biochem wvu
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Agbi 410 Biochemistry Exam 2 Chapter 10
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  1. fatty acids
    • *composition: hydrocarbons and carboxyl fcnl group
    • *saturated/unsaturated
    • *can vary in length
    • *naming tells degree of saturation, configuration, dbl bonds, chain length
  2. CH3(CH2)10COOH
    • Saturated
    • n-Dodecanoic acid
    • Lauric acid
  3. CH3(CH2)12COOH
    • Saturated
    • n-Tertradecanoic acid
    • Myristic acid
  4. CH3(CH2)14COOH
    • Saturated
    • n-Hexadecanoic acid
    • Palmitic acid
  5. CH3(CH2)16COOH
    • Saturated
    • n-Octadecanoic acid
    • Stearic acid
  6. CH3(CH2)18COOH
    • Saturated
    • n-Eicosanoic acid
    • Arachidic acid
  7. CH3(CH2)22COOH
    • Saturated
    • n-Tetracosanoic acid 
    • Lignoceric acid
  8. CH3(CH2)5CH=CH(CH2)7COOH
    • cis-9-Hexadecanoic acid
    • Palitoleic acid
  9. CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH
    • cis-9-Octadecenoic acid
    • Oleic acid
  10. CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7COOH
    • cis-,cis-9,12-Octadecadienoic acid
    • Linoleic acid
  11. CH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7COOH
    • cis-,cis-,cis-9,12,15-Octadectrienoic acid
    • α-Linolenic acid
  12. CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)3COOH
    • cis-,cis-,cis-cis-5,8,1,14-Icosatetraenoic acid
    • Arachidonic acid
  13. Saturated Fatty Acids
    • *high melting points
    • *longer chain from diet->body cant synthesize
    • *most common
    • *have free rotation around C-C bonds
  14. Unsaturated Fatty acids
    • *cis most popular conformation
    • *lower melting points --> are oils, liquids
    • *kinks in chain
    • *weak interactions
  15. Triacylglycerols (TAGs)
    • *fatty acid esters of glycerol
    • *3 fatty acids(can vary) and 1 glycerol
    • *storage form of fat
    • *polar, insoluble in water, hydrophobic
    • *cis configuration
    • *provide stored long-term energy
    • *provide insulation for hybernating/artic animals
  16. partial hydrogenation
    used to increase shelf life
  17. trans-fatty acids
    • *hazardous to health
    • *formed when partially hydrogenated
    • *increase heart risk
  18. lipases
    can release fatty acids from glycerols when in need
  19. Waxes
    • *esters of long-chain SFA and UFAs
    • *water repellent in birds
    • *minimize water evaporation in plants
    • *used to produce lotions, polished, etc
  20. Membrane lipids
    • polar head and nonpolar tail
    • arranged tail to tail-hydrophobic intereior
  21. Phospholipids
    • phosphatidic acid      -H
    • phosphatidylethanolamine    -CH2CH2NH3+
    • phosphatidylcholine    -CH2CH2N(CH3)3+
    • phosphatidylserine     -CH2CH(COO-)N(CH3)3
    • phosphatidylglycerol    -CH2CH(OH)CH2OH
  22. glycerophospholipids
    • *glycerol-3-phosphate is the backbone
    • *Sn-2 and Sn-2 = fatty acids
    •     1 usually saturated, 2 usually unsaturated
    • *Sn-3 polar/charged group attached via phosphodiester linkage
  23. either linked glyerophospholibids
    • *one of the fatty acids are either linked to glyercol
    • *abundant in heart tissue
    • *fcn unknown
  24. glactolipids
    • *1 or 2 galactose residues are connected by a glycosidic linkage
    • *in thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts
    • *70-80% of membrane lipids in plants
  25. Sphingolipids
    • 2 fatty acids, 1 polar head (no glycerol)
    • ceramide: fcnl unit of all sphingolipids
    • Ex: glucosylsides, globosides, gangliosides
    • little is known about their fcn besides:
    •     *dictate blood type
    •     *cell suface receptors
    •     *induce differentiation of neuronal tumor cells
  26. Sterols
    • lipid with steroid nucleus and 4 fused rings
    • Cholesterol main sterol
    • polar head group, nonpolar hydrocarbon body
    • hormone signaling molecule
  27. passive vs active lipids
    • passive: storage and structural
    • active: hormones, signaling molecules, cofactors, pigment molecules, natural colorants, communication signals
  28. Eicosanoids
    • derived from arachidonic acid (20:4)
    • NSAIDs: Nonsteroidal antiinflamitory drugs
    • Prostaglandins: cause inflamation, pain, fever
    • Thromboxanes: produced by platelets, form blot clots, decrease blood flow
    • Leukotrienes: decrease air flow
  29. Steroid hormones
    • derived from cholesterol
    • Testosterone: testies, male sex
    • estradiol: ovaries, female sex
    • Cortisol: adrenal cortex, stress hormone
    • aldosterone: adrenal cortex, restore blood osmilarity
  30. Vitamin D
    • fat soluble
    • maintain calcium homeostasis
  31. Vitamin A
    • Retinol (eye)
    • Retinoic Acid: controls gene transcription, helps epithelial tissue development
    • Retinal: recognizes light
    • β-catotene: converted to retinol
  32. Vitamin E
    • biological antioxidants
    • protect membrane lipids from oxidation
    • destroys reactive oxygen species
  33. Vitamin K
    blot cotting

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