Agbi ch7

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akowalsk
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205189
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Agbi ch7
Updated:
2013-03-05 21:57:08
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agbi wvu biochem
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Agbi 410 Biochemistry WVU Exam 2 Chapter 7
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  1. monosaccharides
    • *simple sugars
    • *aldehydes or keytones with 2+ hydroxyl groups
    • *many carbons have chiral centers
    •      *n chiral centers has 2n stereoisomer
    • *backbone: 4-7 carbons
    • *aldoses: carbonyl group at end
    • *ketoses: carbonyl group in middle of chain
  2. D-Glactose
    • COH
    •       |
    •   H-C-OH
    •       |
    • HO-C-H
    •       |
    • HO-C-H
    •       |
    •   H-C-OH
    •       |
    •      CH2OH
  3. D-Glucose
    • COH
    •       |
    •   H-C-OH
    •       |
    • HO-C-H
    •       |
    •   H-C-OH
    •       |
    •   H-C-OH
    •       |
    •      CH2OH
  4. D-Mannose
    • COH
    •       |
    • HO-C-H
    •       |
    • HO-C-H
    •       |
    •   H-C-OH
    •       | 
    •   H-C-OH
    •       |
    •     CH2OH
  5. D-Ribulose
    • CH2OH
    •     |
    •     C=O
    •     |
    • H-C-OH
    •     |
    • H-C-OH
    •     |   
    •     CH2OH
  6. D-ribose
    • COH
    •     |
    • H-C-OH
    •     |
    • H-C-OH
    •     |
    • H-C-OH
    •     |
    •    CH2OH
  7. Cyclic monosaccharides
    • hemiacetals/hemiketals
    • 5 member ring: furanose
    • 6 member ring: pyranose
    • not planar
    • D/L OH becomes ring member
    • Dbl bonded O becomes α/β OH on right
  8. Disaccharides
    2 monosac. joined covalently by O-glycosidic bond
  9. Naming disaccharides
    • 1. name α or β at carbon on 1st monosac.
    • 2. name first residue
    • 3. ID carbon number at bond
    • 4. name second residue

    typical bond: 1⇒4, 1⇒6
  10. Reducing sugars
    state of O on anomeric C determines whether sugar can react with oxidized cmpd

    when O on anomeric C not attached to another structure ⇒ reducing sugar

    hemiacetal at one end & need to convert back to linear form

    sugars that contain aldehyde groups that are oxidized to carboxylic acids ⇒ reducing sugars
  11. oligasachharides
    short chain of monosac. residues liked with glycosidic bond
  12. polysaccharides
    • 20+ monosac. residues
    • most common
    • dont have defining molecular weight
  13. homopolysaccharide
    *contains single monomeric species

    folding includes H-bonds, and hydrophobic, van der waals, and electrostatic interactions
  14. Startch
    • found in corn kernals
    • form of energy in plants

    amylose: long, unbranched chains of D-Glucose with α1⇒4 link

    amylopectin: long, highly branched chains of D-glucose with α1⇒4 & α1⇒6 link

    more amylose found in plants

    constant repeating
  15. glycogen
    long highly branched chains of D-Glucose with α1⇒4 and α1⇒6 links at branches

    highly compact

    more branching than amlopectin

    found in liver and muscles

    short term energy supply
  16. Dextrans
    bachterial and yeast polysacc

    α1⇒6 linked D-glucose

    α1⇒2, α1⇒3, & α1⇒4 branching

    soluble fiber, cant be digested

    in soda to help lose weight: drink give false full feeling
  17. cellulose
    abundantly found in plants

    linear chains of D-glucose with β1⇒4 links

    most animals dont have enzymes to hydrolize this linkage
  18. chitin
    N-acetylglucosamine residues with β1⇒4 links
  19. heteropolysaccharide
    contains 2+ species of monosac
  20. peptidoglycan
    • β1⇒4 linkd NAM and NAG
    • found in bacteria
    • prevents osmotic swelling
    • lysosomes can hydrolize this bond
  21. Agarose
    • found in algae cell walls
    • can trap water
    • L- and D-glactose
    • β1⇒4

    used as gel in electrophoresis
  22. Extracellular matrix (ECM)
    structural framework for cells

    nutrients and waste diffuse thru (CO2, O2)

    contains fibrous proteins

    • glycosaminoglycans: linear polymers composed of repeating disacc units
    •    -high density of negative charge
  23. Hyaluronan
    β1⇒3
  24. Glycoconjugates
    biologically active & bound to proteins or lipids

    • *cell signaling molecules
    • *label proteins
    • *recognition sites for hormones
    • *cell identity
  25. Glycoproteins
    type of glycoconjugates

    oligosacc covalently joined to a protein

    ~50% all proteins are glycosylated =>modifies protein activity
  26. glycolipid
    membrane sphingolipics, hydrophillic head groups are oligosacc.

    gangliosides: used to determine blood groups, found on outter surface of plasma membrane

    lipopolysaccharidse: fatty acids bound to glucosamine, targets for antibodies

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