Unit B. Matter and Chemical Change
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- Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System
- 8 symbols
- CAUTION: triangle, yellow
- WARNING: diamond, orange
- DANGER: octagon, red
- 7 symbols
Safe practices in the lab.
- hair tied back
- sleeves rolled up
- don't smell anything directly
- don't taste anything
- no flames unattended
- clean up spills imeadiatly
- wear goggles if necissary
What symbols would appear on a car battery?
- corrosive (hands)
- toxic (skull and cross bones)
Safe methods of heating a liquid.
- fill a beaker with water then put the test tube in the beaker and put the beaker on a hot plate. (takes time, max temp. is 100o)
- hold test tube away from you and circle it around the flame to keep it moving
Anything that has mass and occupies space is...
The process of change for matter
- MELTING: solid -> liquid
- FREEZING: liquid -> solid
- CONDENSATION: gas -> liquid
- EVAPORATION: liquid -> gas
- SUBLIMATON: solid -> gas
- DEPOSITION: gas -> solid
How can the density of a substance be obtained?
- D= M/V
- M- mass (g) solids or gasses
- V- volume (mL or cm3) liquids
Chemical and physical change
- Chemical: change in color, odour (produces), formation of gas, release or absorption of heat energy or light energy. React with acid, heat and water. Able to burn. Behaviour in the air.
- Physical: density, solubility, conductivity, hardness, melting point.
Pure substances and mixtures
- pure- 1 thing
- mixture- 2 or more things
Elements and compounds
- elements: atoms are all the same
- compounds: 2 or more different atoms together
4 various types of mixtures
- solutions: homogeneous mixtures; mixture of 2 or more pure substances that look like 1 substance
- suspensions: cloudy mixtures in which tiny particles of 1 substance are held within another. (Separate easier than colloids) Ex. Tomato juice
- collides: cloudy mixtures in which tiny particles of 1 substance are held within another and particles cannot be separated out from the other
- mechanical mixtures: heterogeneous mixture; mixture in which the different substances that make up the mixture are visible. (ex. chocolate chip cookie)
a solution where water is the solvent (vinegar)
Properties of vinegar
- 5% is CH3COOH (acetic acid)
- 95% is H2O (water)
Boiling point and melting point.
- boiling point: when a substances' liquid phase turns/changes to its gas phase. (water is 100o, table salt is 1413o, and propane is -42o)
- melting point: when a substance changes from a solid to a liquid. (water is 0o, table salt is 801o, and propane is -190o)
Physical properties of matter. (ductile, malleable, hardness, etc.)
- ductile- able to be stretched into a long wire
- malleable- able to be pounded or rolled into a sheet
- hardness- the ability to be scratched
Heterogenous and homogeneous
- heterogenous- different ingredients are visible. (ex. chocolate chip cookie)
- homogeneous- different ingredients are not visible. (ex. koolaid)
What happens when you heat a teaspoon of sugar over an open flame?
boils, turns brown/black, gives off odour, liquids evaporate, left with carbon
What is precipitate?
a solid that is formed by a chemical reaction in a liquid
What is freeze-drying, what is the purpose of it?
- when you suck all the water out of food
- it helps preserve food
How can water be changed into 2 different gasses?
electrolysis- decomposition of a substance by an electric current
How long ago was the stone age?
10 000 years ago or 8000 BC
How are steel and bronze produced?
- steel is produced when iron is combined with carbon
- bronze is made from copper and tin
Who were alchemists and what did they believe?
- they believed that you can change metal into gold
The contributions of chemists such as Rutherford, Dalton, Lavoisier, Boyle, Thomson, Nagako, Bohr, Chadwick, Democritus and Aristotle
- Rutherford: found the nucleus with the Gold Foil experiement
- Dalton: developed his own theory of the composition of matter and suggested that matter was made up of elements, Billard Ball Model
- Lavoisier: developed a system for naming chemicals and is called the "father of chemistry"
- Boyle: experimented with the behaviour of gases to see what happened when gases were placed under pressure,
- Thomson: first person to discover a sub atomic particle (a particle smaller than an atom), which were electrons, Raisin Bun model
- Nagako: solar system model
- Bohr: electrons move in specific orbits, electron shell
- Chadwick: nucleus, protons, neutrons
- Democritus: atoms, made up of different types of atomos, unique properties
- Aristotle: everything was made up of fire, air, water and ground
- Al-Razi: discovered the Plaster of Paris
- Andreas Libau- first chemistry book published
Who discovered the nucleus and what countnry did he come from?
- Rutherford and he was British
- Gold Foil Expirement
Who preformed the Golf Foil experiment and be able to explain it
Rutherford and he shot atoms at the gold foil and if they atoms came too close to the nucleus, it would bounce slightly making it not go through directly but either slightly higher than where it was aimed or slightly lower. It if hit the nucleus, it would bounce away all together.
Properites of the subatomic particles
- protons: positive, big, in nucleus
- neutrons: neutral, big, in nucleus
- electrons: negative, tiny, in shells
What model did we use to draw atoms? What is the most recent theory? be able to draw it
- The Bohr model (2,8,8)
- The Quantum Theory
How did Aristotle define matter?
- everything is made up of the 4 elements
- (fire, air, water, ground)
What does amu stand for? How does this relate to atomic mass?
- Atomic mass unit
- Amotic mass is meausred by amu
Why are elements grouped the way they are in the periodic table?
they have similar reactivity
What were the symbols and metals for the sun, moon, and planets for early chemists?
- sun- gold
- moon- silver
- mars- iron
What scienctist created a system of classifying elements that used symbols?
Halogens, non metals, noble gasses, metals (which are the most numerous? where are they located on the periodic table?)
- Halogens: (group 17) most reactive non-metals
- Non-metals: (solid or gas metals are dull, brittle elements that don't conduct electricity
- Noble gases: (group 18) most stable and unreactive elements
- Alkali metals: (group 1)most reactive of the metals
- Alkaline- earth metals: reactivity is not as strong (group 2)
- Metals: shiny, malleable, and conduct electricity
What is a metalliod?
An element that has both metalic and non metalic properties
Why do Bromine and Murcury have blue chemicals symbols in the periodic table?
because they are a liquid at room temperature
Are the horizontal rows groups or periods?
- horizontal- period
- verticle- group
What does the atomic number represent?
how many protons are in the nucleus of the one element
What is the atomic mass of a substance and how do you find it?
The total mass of the protons and neutrons in an atom. (Electrons are so tiny that they have very little effect)
What are the isotopes of carbon? What is corbon-14 used for?
- if scientists find the skulls of animals, they mix their chemicals with carbon 14 and they can find the age of the skull
- it's called carbon dating
thing living thing on earth has 4 elements in it. They are...
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