FOSC Carbohydrates

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  1. What is a carbohydrate and it's basic constituents?
    A hydrate of carbon. C, H and O.
  2. How is a saccharide defined?
    • Number of carbons in it's chemical structure.
    • ie, hexose, pentose.
  3. What are the physiological functions of carbohydrates in foods? (3)
    • Energy
    • Maintain blood-glucose levels
    • Gastro-intestinal health (fibre)
  4. What are the sensory functions of carbohydrates in foods? (3)
    • Add sweetness
    • Add flavour
    • Mouthfeel -body and texture
  5. What are the nutritional functions of carbohydrates in foods? (1)
    Energy - 4 kcal/g
  6. Define starch.
    Polymer chain of glucose monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds.
  7. Overview structure of amylose. (3)
    • Linear polysaccharides
    • 500-2000 glucose units
    • Alpha-1-4 glycosidic bonds
  8. Overview structure of amylopectin.
    • Branched polysaccharide
    • >10,000 glucose units
    • Alpha-1-6 glycosidic bonds at branch points.
  9. Overview gelatinisation. (5)
    • Swelling of starch products 
    • Requires heat and water
    • Weakening of hydrogen bonds in starch
    • Change in texture, volume and gumminess
    • Some amylose leeches out
  10. Overview gelation. (4)
    • Occurs during cooling AFTER gelatinisation
    • Re-association of hydrogen bonds
    • Crystaline regions form
    • Affected by ratio amylose/amylopectin
  11. Overview retrogradation. (3)
    • Aging process of starches
    • Increase in crystalline aggregates as hydrogen bonds form
    • eg staling of bread
  12. Type of animal starch?

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FOSC Carbohydrates
2013-03-05 23:58:56

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