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What is a carbohydrate and it's basic constituents?
A hydrate of carbon. C, H and O.
How is a saccharide defined?
- Number of carbons in it's chemical structure.
- ie, hexose, pentose.
What are the physiological functions of carbohydrates in foods? (3)
- Maintain blood-glucose levels
- Gastro-intestinal health (fibre)
What are the sensory functions of carbohydrates in foods? (3)
- Add sweetness
- Add flavour
- Mouthfeel -body and texture
What are the nutritional functions of carbohydrates in foods? (1)
Energy - 4 kcal/g
Polymer chain of glucose monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds.
Overview structure of amylose. (3)
- Linear polysaccharides
- 500-2000 glucose units
- Alpha-1-4 glycosidic bonds
Overview structure of amylopectin.
- Branched polysaccharide
- >10,000 glucose units
- Alpha-1-6 glycosidic bonds at branch points.
Overview gelatinisation. (5)
- Swelling of starch products
- Requires heat and water
- Weakening of hydrogen bonds in starch
- Change in texture, volume and gumminess
- Some amylose leeches out
Overview gelation. (4)
- Occurs during cooling AFTER gelatinisation
- Re-association of hydrogen bonds
- Crystaline regions form
- Affected by ratio amylose/amylopectin
Overview retrogradation. (3)
- Aging process of starches
- Increase in crystalline aggregates as hydrogen bonds form
- eg staling of bread
Type of animal starch?
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