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What is absolute threshhold?
- the moment you feel something
- the smallest amount of stimulus for ou to feel soemthing
what is difference threshold?
- the smallest level of added stimulus to notice chage
- ex. sugar in water
What is noticeable difference?
- minimum change in stimulation required to detect the difference between two stimuli
- ex. how much harder i have to pke you to see it has chagned
What is transduction?
changing one form of energy to another
What does the cornea do>?
What does the pupil do?
allows light to pass through
What does the retina do?
converts energy of light to electrical impulses for the brain to understand
What is the Fovea?
where the cones are in the retina
What is the optic-nerve?
bundle of ganglion axons that carry info to the brain
What are the shapes of lenses for near and far objects?
What are rods?
rods help you see light
What are cones?
cones help you see color
what is the most common color blindness?
red and green objects are seen as yellow
What is the trichromatic theory of color?
- Three kinds of coens in the retina
- each sees a different color
- ex. red, green, blue
What is the opponent process theory of color vision?
- receptor cells for clor are linked in pairs
- ex. red and green, blue and yellow
What is an ossicle?
- middle of the ear
- contains 3 bones called the hammer, anvil and stirrup
- transmit vibrations to e oval window
What is the oval membrane?
a thin membrane leading to the inner ear
What is the Cochlea
a coiled tue in the ear filled with fluid that vibrates in response to sound
What is the basiilar membrane?
middle part of the cochlea (coiled thing)
What are hair cells?
- tiny cells tat cover the basilar membrane
- sends neural messages to the brain
What is te function of the outer ear?
helps with localiztion of sound
What is the function of the middle ear?
increases strength of vibrations
What is the function of the inner ear?
changes the vibrations to a form that can be transmitted to the brain
What is the place theory of hearing?
theory tat different areas of the basilar membrane responds to different frequencies
What is the frequency theory of hearing?
- basilar membranes acs like a microphone
- vibrating as a whole in response to sound to identify frequency
What is the vestiblar system?
- a system that allows you to keep balance
- i.e. while you're on a bus
What are the semi-circular canals?
- three tubelike structures in the inner ear
- maintains dizziness and stuff
What is the gate control theory of pain?
nerve recepters in the cord lead to specific areas in the brain for pain
What are the 2 ways the brain controls pain?
- impulses of pain and impulses telling ou of no pain fight to stimulate the brain
- a message can be sent to the cord to produce a reduction of pain
What are the 4 laws of organization by gestalt?
- closure (closed box ex)
- similarity (apples and pears ex)
- Proximity (elements that are grouped together)
- simplicity (observed patterns)
What is the top-down processing?
- how ou perceive things due to past studies
- ex. reading a sentence wit the third letter missing
What is the bottom-up process?
recognizing the little things to make a whole picture
What is binocular cues?
- differences in images seen by the left and the right eye
- covering one eye to see the object
- then its different with the other eye
What is monocular cues?
to obtain a sense of depth distance with just one eye.