Seventh grade Social Studies Ancient Israel, Phoenicia, and Military time periods chapter test

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  1. Who does God tell to lead the Hebrews to Canaan - The Promise Land?
  2. At Canaan, the Hebrews would worship how many Gods for guidance and protection?
    One god
  3. In exchange for worship, what did God grant the Hebrews?
    Guidance and protection
  4. What is a special agreement with God called?
    A covenant
  5. A drought and a famine in Canaan under Abraham's leadership lead the Hebrews to migrate where?
    To Egypt
  6. As Hebrews stayed in Egypt, the Egyptians eventually did what to the Hebrews?
    Put them into slavery
  7. Who leads the Hebrews out of Egypt?
  8. What is the exit out of Egypt called?
    The Exodus
  9. How did God tell Moses to lead Hebrews out of Egypt to freedom?
    A burning bush
  10. Because pharaoh's ♔ initial response to Moses'  plea to let his people go was no, what did God send upon the people of Egypt?
    the ten plagues
  11. After the ten plagues, pharaoh lets the Hebrews go. After letting the Hebrews go, he changes his mind and traps them at what sea? What does Moses do? What does the water do?
    Red Sea, asks God for help and he parts the Red Sea, returns and crushes the Egyptian army.
  12. For how long do the Hebrews wander the desert after leaving the pharaoh's wrath?
    Forty years
  13. Define trade
    The exchange of goofs for units of value between two individuals or two countries.
  14. Define import
    Buying goods from another country.
  15. Define export
    Selling goods from another country.
  16. Define trade routes
    Roads or paths along which goods are regularly moved for export and import
  17. Define treaty
    An agreement made between two nations
  18. Define natural resources
    Materials from nature such as tree or minerals that are useful to the operation of a business or society
  19. Where is Phoenicia located today?
    In Lebanon
  20. How large is Phoenicia?
    200 miles wide and 30 miles long
  21. On which part of the Mediterranean is Phoenicia located?
    On the eastern coast
  22. Name three important Phoenician city-states
    Tyre, Sidion, and Byblos
  23. Describe the soil and mountain ranges of Phoenicia.
    Well, the soil was not terrible for agriculture but the mountain ranges in the east limited the room for agriculture
  24. What are some key points about the Phoenician's purple dye?
    Purple dye was used on cloth, produced by a sort of shellfish along the Mediterranean, costly to make, and it took six thousand smelly snail glands to be squished for one pound of purple dye
  25. what are some key things about Phoenician cedar?
    Cedar was one of the country's only natural resources. This reddish wood was so prized that the "cedars of Lebanon" became famous throughout the ancient world
  26. What are some main exports of Phoenicia?
    Wine, weapons, slaves, ivory, glass, cloth, and precious metals
  27. Define colony?
    A territory belonging to another country
  28. What is the reason for colonizing?
    For business
  29. Where is Carthage located?
    In present day Tunisa, North Africa
  30. Which colony had a 'favorite port' in Phoenician times?
  31. What was the Phoenician's crowning achievement?
    The alphabet
  32. Why did the Phoenicians need the alphabet instead of cuneiform?
    The Phoenicians needed to keep business records but cuneiform was too vexatious.
  33. Where do we get the word 'alphabet' from?
    The Phoenician's first to letters, 'aleph and beth
  34. How many symbols were in the Phoenician alphabet?
    Only twenty-two symbols
  35. Who later adopted and changed the Phoenician alphabet?
    The Greeks and Romans
  36. Why was the Phoenician's new writing system important?
    A simple system of writing that many people could read or write later helped to the growth of science and industry
  37. Where did the Hittites originate in?
    Asia Minor
  38. What lands did the Hittites conquer?
    Southwest Asia, Babylon, and some of northern syria
  39. What did the Hittites borrow and blend?
    Adopted Akkadian from the conquered Babylonians and ideas about literature, art, politics, and law from Mesopotamians
  40. Hittites used chariots. What were chariots like?
    Light, easy to maneuver, two wheels, a wooden frame, covered in leather, pulled by two or four horses
  41. Hittites used iron for their weapons. What was iron like?
    Stronger and sharper than bronze, but complex to work with
  42. Who conquered the Hittites?
    The Assyrians
  43. Where did the Assyrians originate in?
  44. Where did the Assyrians conquer?
    The rest of Mesopotamia, the Persian Gulf in the east, and the Nile in the west
  45. How did the Assyrians come to power?
    They fought with a large and strong army
  46. What was the Assyrian's army like?
    It was well organized. The core group was foot soldiers with spears and daggers, others were experts at using bows and arrows, also had chariot riders and those on horseback
  47. What were the Assyrian's weapons made out of?
    An iron that they took from the Hittites and upgraded, using for weapons
  48. How did the Assyrians attack cities?
    They would tunnel under walls or climb over them with ladders, load tree trunks on platforms and ram down city gates, set fire, took people and goods, and those who resisted were punished
  49. What was the result of the cities the Assyrian's attacked?
    The empire was formed with strong kings
  50. What were the borders of the Assyrian empire?
    From the Persian Gulf in the east to Egyt's Nile River in the west.
  51. What was the Assyrian's capital?
    Nineveh on the Tigris River
  52. What was the Assyrian's government like?
    Provinces (political districts), chose officials to govern each province who enforced laws and collected taxes
  53. What was the Assyrian's road system like?
    built roads to join all parts of empire, government soldiers were posted at stations to protect traders from bandits, messengers on government horses used stations to rest and change horses
  54. What was the writing, religion, and laws of the Assyrians like?
    • Writing - Akkadian based on the Babylonians
    • Religion - Worshiped Babylonian gods
    • Laws - Similar to Babynlonian's but lawbreakers were more cruelly and brutally punished
  55. Who built the first library?
    The Assyrians
  56. Who conquered the Assyrians?
    The Chaldeans
  57. Where were the Chaldeans located?
    Mesopotamia and Babylon
  58. Where did the Chaldeans conquer?
  59. Who was the Chaldean's king?
  60. What was the Chaldean's main city like?
    Largest and richest city, surrounded by a brick wall thick enough for two chariots, watch towers a hundred yards apart, large palaces and temples in center, ziggurat 300 feet tall, terraced gardens at the king's palace, pump brought water from a nearby river, outside stood houses, marketplaces, and it was on a major trade route.
  61. Who were the first people to study Astronomy?
    The Chaldeans - they made one of the first sundials and were first to have a seven-day week
  62. Who conquered the Chaldeans?
    The Persians
  63. Where were the Persians originally located
    Southwest Iran
  64. Who was Cyrus the Great?
    A remarkable leader who united the Persians into a powerful kingdom, an empire than any yet sen in the world
  65. Where did the Persians conquer?
    Babylonia, northern Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Syria, Canaan, and Phoenician cities
  66. How did the Persians treat the people that they conquered?
    They treated them well and let them keep their religion and customs
  67. What was the Persian's road system like?
    Built 1677 miles of road, Royal Road stretched from Asia Minor to Syria, the Persian capital, road stations long the way to supply food, shelter, and fresh horses to the king's messengers. Took one week to get from one end to the other
  68. What was the Persian's coin system like?
    Introduced metal coins of standard value throughout the empire, no longer had to measure bits of gold or silver, held empire together
  69. Who was Darius?
    A Persian king that came to power in 521 BCE
  70. What were some characteristics of the Persian empire?
    Developed empire into 20 provinces called satrapies ruled by satraps meaning "protector of the kingdom." They collected taxes, acted as judges, chief of police, head recruiter for the army, and answered to the Persian king
  71. What was the Persian king like?
    The king's power depended on it, large, professional, paid soldiers, full-time soldiers, 10,000 specially trained soldiers to guard the king - called Immortals because when one died, he was immediately repleaced.
  72. What was the Persian religion like?
    Called Zoroastranism after Zoroaster who was born in 600 BCE who began preaching after seeing visions a young man, one god, recognize evil and that people had a choice, practiced for centuries
  73. Name the three Hebrew kings in order
    Saul, David, Solomon
  74. Who was the first king of the Israelites?
  75. After Saul's rule, who becomes king?
  76. David is known for bravery and leadership in what Hebrew Bible story?
    David and Goliath
  77. Who created and expanded Israel's capital - Jerusalem?
  78. After David's death, who becomes the king of Israel?
  79. Who built the Great Temple?
  80. What did Solomon build?
    The Great Temple
  81. What did the Great Temple hold?
    The Ark of the Covenant
  82. With the death of Solomon, rebellion breaks out. What is the northern part called? The capital? Southern? Capital? What were they called?
    • Northern - Israel
    •     ↳ Samaria

    • Southern - Judah
    •     ↳ Jerusalem
    •     ↳ Jews
  83. After Canaan splits into two, who conquers the Jews and Israelites?
    The Assyrians
  84. After the Assyrians conquer Canaan, who conquers Canaan? What do they destroy?
    Chaldeans, the Great Temple.
  85. What is the name for when the Chaldeans conquered the Hebrews?
    The Babylonian Captivity
  86. While in exile after leaving Canaan after Chaldeans conquered, what was started?
    They started worshiping in synagogues and they met on the Sabbath which was the day of worship and rest.
  87. Who defeated the Chaldeans, allowing the Jews to return to Judah?
    The Persians
  88. What did the Hebrews do after the Persians let them return home?
    They rebuilt the Great Temple and for the first time, Jews write the first five books of the Torah
  89. After the Persians defeat the Chaldeans, who defeats the Persians? What do they introduce?
    Alexander the Great/Greeks, they introduce Greek ways, language, and even religion
  90. What is the scattering of the Jews called after the Greeks conquer the Jews?
    The Diaspora - those who fled still remained loyal to Judaism, created a Greek version of the Bible, and Jewish ideas spread throughout the Roman world
  91. After being forced to worship Greek gods and goddesses, a group of Jews form an army called what?
    The Maccabees
  92. What does Hanukkah celebrate?
    The driving out of the Greeks
  93. After the Maccabees drive out the Greeks, who take over the Jews?
    The Romans who rename it Judea. They destroy it, only leaving the western wall
Card Set:
Seventh grade Social Studies Ancient Israel, Phoenicia, and Military time periods chapter test

Made 3/5/13 and 3/6/13, Test 3/8/13
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