Nonprotein Nitrogenous Compounds

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Author:
ncrook
ID:
205229
Filename:
Nonprotein Nitrogenous Compounds
Updated:
2013-05-05 20:23:47
Tags:
Urea Creatinine Uric Acid Ammonia
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Description:
Urea, Creatinine, Uric Acid, Ammonia
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  1. What is the major nitrogen containing compound in the blood?
    Urea
  2. Where does urea come from?
    • Result of protein catabolism
    • Synthesized in the liver from the deamination of amino acids
  3. How does the body get rid of excess urea?
    Excreted in the kidneys
  4. What causes an increase in urea?
    • Renal failure
    • Glomerular nephritis
    • Urinary tract obstruction
    • Congestive heart failure
    • Dehydration
    • Increased protein catabolism
  5. What causes a decrease in urea?
    • Severe liver disease
    • Vomiting
    • Diarrhea
    • Malnutrition
  6. How do you convert BUN to urea?
    BUN x 2.14 = Urea
  7. What methodology is used to measure urea?
    • Kinetic method
    • Chemical method
  8. What is the reference range of urea?
    6-20 mg/dL
  9. What is a waste product of muscle contraction that is formed from phosphocreatine, a high energy compound?
    Creatinine
  10. How are creatinine levels regulated?
    Regulated by kidney excretion
  11. What is creatinine measured for?
    Used to assess the glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
  12. What causes an increase in serum creatinine?
    • Renal disease
    • Renal failure
  13. What methodology is used to measure creatinine?
    • Jaffe method
    • Enzymatic method
  14. What is the reference range for creatinine?
    • Male: 0.9-1.3 mg/dL
    • Female: 0.6-1.1 mg/dL
  15. What is the creatinine clearance used for?
    Used to assess the GFR
  16. What is the creatinine clearance formula?
    • P = Plasma creatinine
    • U = Urine creatinine
    • V = Volume
    • SA = Body surface area
    • 1.73m2 = Average body surface area
  17. What is the reference range of the creatinine clearance?
    • Males: 85-125 mL/min/1.73m2
    • Females: 75-115 mL/min/1.73m2
  18. What is the major waste product of purine (adenosine and guanine) catabolism?
    Uric acid
  19. Where is Uric acid synthesized?
    Liver
  20. How is uric acid regulated?
    • Regulated by the kidneys through glomerular filtration
    • Some is excreted through the GI tract
  21. What causes uric acid to increase?
    • Gout
    • Renal disorders
    • Treatment of myeloproliferative disorders
    • Lead poisoning
    • Lactic acidosis
    • Toxemia of pregnancy
    • Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
  22. What causes uric acid to decrease?
    • Severe liver disease as a secondary disorder
    • Tubular reabsorption disorders
    • Drug induced
  23. What methodology is used to measure uric acid?
    • Chemical method
    • Enzymatic uricase method
  24. What is the reference range for uric acid?
    • Male: 3.5-7.2 mg/dL
    • Female: 2.6-6.0 mg/dL
  25. How is ammonia produced?
    Produced from deamination of amino acids
  26. How is ammonia regulated?
    Hepatocytes convert ammonia to urea for excretion
  27. What causes ammonia to increase?
    • Severe liver cell malfunction
    • Hepatic failure
    • Reyes syndrome
  28. What is dangerous about ammonia?
    Ammonia is neurotoxic
  29. What is special about the specimen requirements of ammonia?
    • No hemolysis
    • Placed immediately on ice
    • Centrifuge immediately and run
  30. What is the reference range of ammonia?
    11-32 micro-mol/L

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