PSY Midterm 2

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  1. Components of Temperament
    • Emotional Excitability
    • Sociability 
    • Activity Level 

    Baby's temperament-difficult, easy or slow to warm up
  2. What influences our behavior?
    • Prenatal-inside mom's womb, mother must make sure to take care of body
    • Early experiences- from birth to school
    • Peer influence- very influential especially in the earlier years of school 
    • Culture- behaviors traditions, ideas shared between a society 
    • Gender- A crucial form of identity and expectations (gender roles)
  3. Social Learning Theory
    Children learn through watching others and then imitating their actions
  4. Gender Schema Theory
    children learn through social means and their own cognition, therefore they observe behaviors and then decide what to keep
  5. Developmental Psychologists
    someoe who studies the physical, mental and social changes through one's life cycle
  6. Developmental Psychologist Work Focus
    • nature v. nurture
    • continuity v. stages (slow changes v. changes that happen in noticeable steps)
    • stability v. change-whether our traits endure or change as we age
  7. Zygote
    a developing child in the first two weeks of life, half of these end in miscarriages, after the sperm meets the egg, it travels through the fallopian tubes to the uterus where it implants 3-5 days after conception where bleeding/spotting may occur
  8. Embryo
    a developing child from the 3rd week through the 8th week
  9. Fetus
    a developing child from the 9th week until birth
  10. Tertogens
    any agent, chemical or virus that can vause harm to a developing child
  11. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAL)
    babes that are often born premature, underweight and have a lot of learning disabilities, in addition to having their intellectual ability hindered throughout life; severe cases may cause a particular facial appearance because their mothers drink alcohol during pregnancy
  12. Rooting Reflex
    tendency for the baby to open their mouth and turn toward the cheek that is touched, instinctual movement relating to the search for nutrition
  13. Infancy
    birth to age on
  14. Childhood
    age 1 to 12
  15. Adolescence
    from 13 to adulthood (no specified age)
  16. Adulthood
    the social achievement of being an independent adult (dependent on culture)
  17. Maturation
    • an orderly sequence of genetically designed biological growth processes 
    • i.e. crawling, standing, walking, running, babbling, single words, talking
  18. Areas of Development
    • Cognition
    • Psychosocial
    • Morality
  19. Paiget
    • Swiss psychologist, that developed psychological test for France to test children intelligence-realized children of a certain age would get certain questions wrong in the same way 
    • 4 Stage Cognitive Theory
  20. Cognition
    all mental activities associated with thinking, knowing and remembering
  21. Schema
    framework that organizes and interprets information
  22. Assimilation
    • when we take in new information and make it fit into our existing schemas
    • i.e. when a child who has only known a dog and sees a cat and assumes it is a dog because it only has that framework
  23. Accommodation
    • building new framework to accommodate new information
    • i.e. when the same child is told that a cat is a cat and creates a new schema in its mind to accommodate the new object
  24. First stage of Cognitive Theory
    • 1:Sensorimotor-children use all of their sense to learn about the world from birth until 2 years 
    • object permanence- a child who has not reach this point will have a toy and when it is covered with cloth it isn't there (6 months); at 8 months it'll pull the cloth off
    • stranger anxiety-a child can tell the difference between familiar and unfamiliar people-about 8 months
  25. Second Stage of Cognitive Theory
    • Preoperational- 2-7 years 
    • No conservation v. conservation principle- the principle that mass, volume and number remain the same despite the changes in form or shape (child would not understand moving same liquid into different shaped containers)
    • Egocentrism- the child believes that their view of the world is everybody's view of the world i.e. children believing that if they can't see others, others can't see them
  26. Third Stage of Congnitive Theory
    • Concrete Operational-6/7-12 years
    • conservation- same principle but now they understand the mass, volume or number is the same
    • reverse operations- children understand that operations can be reversed i.e. understanding you can add, and then subtract to end up with the original
  27. Fourth Stage of Cognitive Theory
    • Formal Operational- 12 years-
    • abstract thinking
    • complex thinking
  28. Erikson and his Psychosocial Dvelopment
    Psychology of who we are is influenced by the social settings and interactions we are put into
  29. Origins of Attachment in Psychosocial theory
    • Body Contact-Harlow monkey study
    • Responsive Parenting-work of Ainsworth and 3 types of testing (authoritairian, permissive, authorative parent "democratic parent")
    • Familiarity- work of Lorenz (critical period- an optimal period shortly after birth when certain vents must take place in order for proper development to occur leading to imprinting-the process by which certain animals form attachments during the critical period very early in life
  30. Responsive Parenting Types
    • Authoritarian-similar to a dictator, parents make all the rules and they expect complete obedience
    • Permissive- had very few rules, allow the child to make the own decisions with very little punishment; children are allowed to speak for themselves and voice opinions and have very few boundaries 
    • Authorative (Democratic)- parents have expectations, expect obedience but encourage discussion; are flexible and willing o explain (children have high self esteem, self reliant, and socially competent)
  31. Stages of Psychosocial Development
    • Trust v. Mistrust-happens during the first year of life where the child will either trust the world or won't, they trust their needs will be taken care of
    • Autonomy v. Shame and Doubt- age 1-3 where they want to do things on their own and they will either be autonomous or be insecure
    • Initiative v. Guilt- age 3-6 where they initiate things: what they want to do, who they want to see etc. 
    • Competence v. Inferiority- 6-puberty, want to feel competent and told they are doing well, at then end they will feel competent  or inferior
    • Identity v. Role Confusion-teen years, child find their identity by trying different things, marked by anger
    • -Intimacy v. Isolation- late teens to 40s learn to share who you are with someone else
    • Generativity v. Stagnation-happens in the midlife to 60s, where you assess your life, people choose to start over
    • Integrity v. Dispair- 60s- people turn around and look at their entire life and decide if they had integrity, did they do something worthwhile?
  32. G. Stanley Hall
    • 1904 Psychologist who identified the stage of adolescence 
    • a unique time of development between a child and an adult corresponding to the teenage years
  33. Adolescences Physical Changes
    • Primary Sex Characteristics- ones that are required to be able to reproduce i.e. ovaries/periods(10), sperm productions (12)
    • Secondary Sex Characteristics-outward appearances that are not necessary for reporduction i.e. breasts and hips, deep voice, facial hair, adams apple, pubic hair
  34. Adolescence Cognitive Changes
    can think quickly and make decisions rapidlly, not always the best decisions
  35. Adolescence Social Changes
    trying to find your identity separate from your parents, you  must push away from parents
  36. Moral Development
    • Developed by Lawrence Kohlberg 
    • our sense of right and wrong, why do we conform to societies norms of what is right and wrong?
  37. Stages of Moral Development
    • Stage 1-Pre conventional Morality- motivation of gain reward or not get punished (up to age 9)
    • Stage 2-Conventional Morality-motivation to gain approval and avoid disapproval, black and white sense of morality  (by early adolescence)
    • Stage 3- Post Conventional Morality-not all people reach this, act from own ideas to determine what is right and wrong, against law/morals (adulthood)
  38. Types of Intelligence
    • Crystallized-increases as we age, we father as we go i.e. vocabulary (philosophy/historians)
    • Fluid-tends to decrease as we  age, tends to be at its height in a persons 20's i.e. the ability to reason quickly and think abstractly (science)
  39. Learning
    A relatively permanent change in an organisms behavior due to experience
  40. Associateive Learning
    learning to associate two events that occur together
  41. Types of Condition (the way we leanr)
    • Classical-learn to associate two stimuli and thus to anticipate events
    • Operant- learn to associate a response and its consequence 
    • Observational-learn by observing others, without direct experience
  42. Ivan Pavlov
    Russian scientist who studied digestion, won Nobel Peace prize 

    • US- unconditioned stimulus- food
    • UR-unconditioned response-salivation
    • CS-conditions stimulus-bell
    • CR- conditioned response- salivation to the bell 

    *conditioned is always learned, unconditioned is always unlearned
  43. Pavlov's 5 processes of conditioning
    • Acquisition-when they learn the stimulus response relationship i.e. quail study with red light 
    • Extinction-the decrease of a conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus no longer signals the unconditioned stimulus i.e.if you ring the bell continuously the dog will stop salivating in response
    • Spontaneous Recovery-the reappearances of the conditioned response after a rest period i.e. if dog stopped salivating to response then time passed it'll salivate again, if fake again it'll become extinct faster
    • Generalization-the tendency to respond to stimuli which is similar to the conditioned stimuli i.e. if you right a bell that's different pitches the dog will still salivate
    • Discrimination-the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimuli which predicts the unconditioned stimuli and other irrelevant stimuli i.e. dog would not salivate to fog horn
  44. Why is conditioning important?
    • Survival
    • Reproduction
    • Gain Food 
    • Avoid Danger
    • Defeat Rivals
    • Locate Mates
  45. Pavlov Criticism
    • underestimated the cognitive processes of animals
    • underestimated biological constraints
  46. Little Albert
    • John Watson Experiment 1913-observable behavior 
    • Albert-mother of a wet nurse, died at a young age 
    • Loud noise=fear:unconditioned stimulus=unconditioned response 
    • eventually learned white fuzzy animals were fearful: white rat=fear: conditioned stimulus= conditioned response 
    • would make loud noises from behind him every time Albert tried to touch the rat, conditioning him to be afraid of the rat crying when it came near
Card Set:
PSY Midterm 2
2013-03-06 03:15:23
Meeks UT Psychology Midterm Utexas

Midterm 2 Flashcards, Chapters 4,5 and 7
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