Agbi ch8

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akowalsk
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205264
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Agbi ch8
Updated:
2013-03-05 23:09:31
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agbi biochem wvu
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Agbi 410 Biochemistry WVU Exam 2 Chapter 8
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  1. Central Dogma
    DNA =>RNA=>Protein=>Modified protein

    RNA: rRNA=>mRNA=>tRNA
  2. 3 nucleotide components
    • nitrogenous base
    • pentose
    • phosphate

    •  5'
    •    O-
    •     |
    • O=P-O-
    •     |
    •     O  O   Base
    •     |  /  \  |    
    •  H2C      C
    •       \     /
    •        C--CH   <=OH if RNA
    •        | 
    •        OH
    •    3'
  3. A
    • base: adenine
    • nucleoside: adenosine (RNA/DNA)
    • Purine

    •      NH3
    •      |
    •      C      N
    •    //  \  /   \\
    •   N    C      CH
    •   |     ||      /
    • HC     C    N
    •     \\  / \  /
    •       N    N
    •             H
  4. G
    • base: Guanine
    • nucleoside: guanosine (RNA)
    •                  deoxyguanosine (DNA)
    • Purine

    •            O
    •            ||
    •            C      N
    •           /  \  /   \\
    •         N    C      CH
    •         |     ||      /
    • H2N--C     C    N
    •          \\   / \  /
    •             N    N
    •                   H
  5. T
    • base: Thymine
    • nucleoside: Thymidine, deoxythymidine(DNA)
    • Pyrimidine

    •          O
    •          ||
    •          C 
    •       /    \
    •    HN     C-CH3
    •      |      ||
    • O=C      CH
    •       \    /
    •         N
    •         H
  6. C
    • base: Cytosine
    • nucleoside: Cytidine(RNA)
    •                  Deoxycytidine(DNA)
    • Pyrimidine

    •          NH2
    •           |
    •          C
    •       //    \
    •      N      CH
    •      |       ||
    • O=C       CH
    •       \     /
    •          N
    •          H
  7. Phosphodiester linkage
    • *5' to 3'
    • *compliment DNA strand goes opposite direction
  8. Base pairing
    • *hydrophopic backbond
    • *hydrophillic bases
    • *A-T  => 2 hydrogen bonds
    • *C-G  => 3 hydrogen bonds, more stable
    • *helical structure
    • *replication by separating strands, make copy
  9. Frederick Griffith
    • Tested pneumoniae with 2 strains
    •  S => virtulent
    •  R => nonvirtulent
    • S carried genetic information for virtulence
  10. Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty
    • repeaded Griffiths experiment
    • discovered lipidc, protein,s and enzymes carried no genetic information
  11. Hershey and Chase
    examined bacteriophages, composed of only DNA with protein coat
  12. Erwin Chargaff
    determined dif cell types didnt have dif composition, just some genes suppressed

    determined A pairs with T and G with C
  13. Franklin and Wilkins
    tested 3-D structure using x-ray diffraction

    • discovered DNA is helical
    • diameter of 2nm, one turn every 3.4nm
  14. Watson and Crick
    proposed double helical structure 

    stole ideas from Franklin and Wilkins, did no actual testing
  15. DNA Structure
    double helix

    2 antiparallel complementing strands

    • bases on interior forming H-bonds
    •     syn vs. anti**

    α, β, and Z form: β most commom, Z rare
  16. Palendromes
    • mirror repeats: same side
    •   ex: ATC CTA
    •         TAG GAT

    • inverted repeats: complementing sides
    •   ex: TTACACGTGTAA
    •         AATGTGCACATT

    Hairpins, cruciforms formed with repeats
  17. triplex DNA
    Hoogsteen pairing: pairing with fcnl groups
  18. tetraplex DNA
    occurs with many G's
  19. mRNA
    • *messenger RNA
    • *increase in protein synthesis increases mRNA levels
    • *Transcription: RNA => mRNA
    • *Monocistronic: mRNA codes for single polypep
    • *Polycistronic: mRNA codes for 1+ polypeps
    • *3 nucleotides (codon) per AA residue
  20. tRNA
    Transfer RNA

    grows polypeptide in correct sequence
  21. rRNA
    ribosmal RNA

    components of RNA
  22. RNA
    • can base pair with complimentary regions of RNA or DNA 
    • A:U not A:T
    • Many hairpins, bulges, and loops
    • no β form, only α

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