Biotechnology and genetic manipulation
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- Using natural processes of replication, transcription, translation, etc. to manipulate genes in living cells.
- Need to look at amplification, detection, splicing, and vectors in cells
tools of the biotechnologist
- Enzymes that interact with DNA and RNA
- Plasmid DNA
- Host organisms
- most cells- DNA is in the nucleus and forms part of the genetic make up
- some cells may have other small pieces of DNA (plasmids)
- These circular pieces of DNA can be extracted from the cells, changed and replicated giving new properties to the cell: Recombinant DNA
- self - replication pieces of DNA that are not tied to the replication cycles of the nuclear DNA
- may be many copies of a plasmid inside a cell
- occur naturally in cells
- may be responsible for unique properties like drug resistance, toxin production or other non essiental traits
- need to have: orgin of replication, promotor (host cell), Marker (antibiotic resistance)
- enzymes that can cut DNA in the middle of the strand
- leaves ragged ends that could be specifically bound to other pieces of DNA
- allows ability to cut and paste different pieces of DNA together
- this is how insulin and penicillin and many antibiotics are produced
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