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Minerals AND Inorganic
- Minerals are inorganic elements
- *do not contain carbon
Minerals AND Simplest form AND DIgestion
Minerals are not digested or broken down prior to absorption
How much percent does water make of a healthy adult?
About 2/3 of fluids is..
- intracellular fluid
- *within body cells
About 1/3 of our bodily fluids is...
What are 2 types of extracellular fluids?
(types of extracellular fluid) Tissue Fluid
found between the cells within tissues and organs of the body
(types of extracellular fluid) Plasma
fluid portion of blood that carries the blood cells
What are 3 factors body composition of tissue vary by?
- -tissue type
- *lean tissues have higher fluid content
- *males have more lean tissue
- *lean tissue is lost with age
What are 2 things that body fluids are composed of?
4 examples of electolytes
Which two electrolytes are positively charged?
sodium and potassium
Which 2 electrolytes are negative charge?
Chloride amd Phosphorus
What are the 4 functions of fluids?
-fluids dissolve and transport substances
-fluids account for blood volume
-fluids help maintain body temperature
-fluids help portect and lubricate body tissues
(functions of fluids) Fluids dissolve and transport substances (2)
- -water is a solvent
- *can dissolve many different substances
- -the solutes (dissolved materials) are important
- *vitamins, ions, sugars, etc
(functions of fluids) Fluids account for blood volume (2)
-increased blood volume can cause blood pressure to rise
-decreased blood volumes can cause low blood pressure
What is blood volume?
is the amount of fluid in the blood
(functions of fluids) Fluids help maintain body temperature (2)
-high capacity for heat that water contains means that the temperature of our body fluids remain stable
- -sweating releases heat as the evaporation of water from the skin
- *cools off skin and blood
(functions of fluids) Fluids protect and lubricate bdy tissues
- - cerebrospinal fluid protects brain and spinal column
-aminiotic fluid protects the fetus
-synovial fluid is libricant around the joints
(functions of electrolytes) Elctrolytes help regulate fluid balance
- -water follos the movement of electrolytes, moving by osmosis to areas where the concentration of electrolytes is hgih
- *sodium potassium pump
(functions of electrolytes) Electrolytes help nerves respond to stimuli (1.5)
-movement of sodium and potassium across membranes of nerve cells changes electrical charge
**this carries the nerve impulse along the nerve cell
(functions of electrolytes) Electrolytes signal our muscles to contract (1.5)
- -movement of calcium into a muscle cell stimulates the muscle to contract
- *it is pumped back out after the muscle contraction
What are the 4 ways water is lost?
urine, sweat, exhalation, feces
What are 3 ways water is gained?
WHat is water required for?
fluid and electrolyte balance and amny metabolic reactions
What is a possible consequence of drinking too much water?
dilution of sodium
What are the 3 functions of sodium?
-fluid and electrolyte balance
-associated with blood pressure and pH balance in the body
-required for nerve impulse transmission
Process foods AND sodium
processed foods are surprisingly high in sodium
2 deficiency symptoms of sodium
- *prolonged vomit or diarrhea
- **consuming too much water
Consequences of excessive intake of sodium
high blood pressure
3 functions of potassium
-fluid and electrolyte balance
-important in muscle contractions and transmission of nerve impulses
-high potassium intake helps to maintain a lower blood pressure
Sources of potassium (2)
-processed foods are usually low in potassium
-fresh fruit and veggies and whole grains are good sources of potassium
4 deficiency symptoms of potassium
-irregular heart beat
-loss of appetite
Toxicity symptoms of potassium
slowed heart beat
2 functions of chloride
-assists with maintaining fluid balance
-assists with immune system
Food sources for chloride
-table salt, some veggies,
-present in all foods
Consuming too much chloride
-may lead to hypertension in salt-sensitive patients
Not consuming enough chloride
it is rare usually happens with people with eating disorders
6 diseases related to fluid and electrolyte imbalance
When does heat stroke occur?
if the bodys temperature regulation mechanisms fail
*occurs in hot humid environments
What is hypertension? (4)
-chronic condition characterized by high blood pressure
- *** systolic +140
- *** Diastolic +90
*may not show symtpoms
High sodium intake AND hypertension
-there is no evidence that high sodium leads to hypertension but health organizations recommend a reduced sodium intake
2 functions of selenium
- *part of glutathione peroxidase enzyme system
- -production of thyroxine
- *a thyroid hormone
Sources of selenium
-organ meats, pork, seafood. nuts. wheat, rice
Selenium toxicity (3)
-brittle hair and nails
**results from supplements
2 diseases associated with deficiency in selenium (4)
- -keshan disease
- *heart disease
- -kashin beck disease
- *an arthritis
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