3.2.1

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Author:
efrain12
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205327
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3.2.1
Updated:
2013-03-06 02:36:11
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minerals part I
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  1. Minerals AND Inorganic
    • Minerals are inorganic elements
    • *do not contain carbon
  2. Minerals AND Simplest form AND DIgestion
    Minerals are not digested or broken down prior to absorption
  3. How much percent does water make of a healthy adult?
    50-70%
  4. About 2/3 of fluids is..
    • intracellular fluid
    • *within body cells
  5. About 1/3 of our bodily fluids is...
    extracellular
  6. What are 2 types of extracellular fluids?


    -tissue fluid

    -plasma
  7. (types of extracellular fluid) Tissue Fluid
    found between the cells within tissues and organs of the body
  8. (types of extracellular fluid) Plasma
    fluid portion of blood that carries the blood cells
  9. What are 3 factors body composition of tissue vary by?
    • -tissue type
    • *lean tissues have higher fluid content

    • -gender
    • *males have more lean tissue

    • -age
    • *lean tissue is lost with age
  10. What are 2 things that body fluids are composed of?
    -water

    -electrolytes
  11. 4 examples of electolytes
    -sodium

    -potassium

    -chloride

    -phosphorous
  12. Which two electrolytes are positively charged?
    sodium and potassium
  13. Which 2 electrolytes are negative charge?
    Chloride amd Phosphorus
  14. What are the 4 functions of fluids?
    -fluids dissolve and transport substances

    -fluids account for blood volume

    -fluids help maintain body temperature

    -fluids help portect and lubricate body tissues
  15. (functions of fluids) Fluids dissolve and transport substances (2)
    • -water is a solvent
    • *can dissolve many different substances

    • -the solutes (dissolved materials) are important
    • *vitamins, ions, sugars, etc
  16. (functions of fluids) Fluids account for blood volume (2)
    -increased blood volume can cause blood pressure to rise

    -decreased blood volumes can cause low blood pressure
  17. What is blood volume?
    is the amount of fluid in the blood
  18. (functions of fluids) Fluids help maintain body temperature (2)
    -high capacity for heat that water contains means that the temperature of our body fluids remain stable

    • -sweating releases heat as the evaporation of water from the skin
    • *cools off skin and blood
  19. (functions of fluids) Fluids protect and lubricate bdy tissues
    • Examples)
    • - cerebrospinal fluid protects brain and spinal column

    -aminiotic fluid protects the fetus

    -synovial fluid is libricant around the joints
  20. (functions of electrolytes) Elctrolytes help regulate fluid balance
    • -water follos the movement of electrolytes, moving by osmosis to areas where the concentration of electrolytes is hgih
    • *sodium potassium pump
  21. (functions of electrolytes) Electrolytes help nerves respond to stimuli (1.5)
    -movement of sodium and potassium across membranes of nerve cells changes electrical charge

    **this carries the nerve impulse along the nerve cell
  22. (functions of electrolytes) Electrolytes signal our muscles to contract (1.5)
    • -movement of calcium into a muscle cell stimulates the muscle to contract
    • *it is pumped back out after the muscle contraction
  23. What are the 4 ways water is lost?
    urine, sweat, exhalation, feces
  24. What are 3 ways water is gained?
    -beverages

    -food

    -metabolic reactions
  25. WHat is water required for?
    fluid and electrolyte balance and amny metabolic reactions
  26. What is a possible consequence of drinking too much water?
    dilution of sodium
  27. What are the 3 functions of sodium?
    -fluid and electrolyte balance

    -associated with blood pressure and pH balance in the body

    -required for nerve impulse transmission
  28. Process foods AND sodium
    processed foods are surprisingly high in sodium
  29. 2 deficiency symptoms of sodium
    -muscle cramps

    • -hyponatremia
    • *prolonged vomit or diarrhea
    • **consuming too much water
  30. Consequences of excessive intake of sodium
    high blood pressure
  31. 3 functions of potassium
    -fluid and electrolyte balance

    -important in muscle contractions and transmission of nerve impulses

    -high potassium intake helps to maintain a lower blood pressure
  32. Sources of potassium (2)
    -processed foods are usually low in potassium

    -fresh fruit and veggies and whole grains are good sources of potassium
  33. 4 deficiency symptoms of potassium
    -irregular heart beat

    -loss of appetite

    -muscle cramps

    -death
  34. Toxicity symptoms of potassium
    slowed heart beat
  35. 2 functions of chloride
    -assists with maintaining fluid balance

    -assists with immune system
  36. Food sources for chloride
    -table salt, some veggies,

    -present in all foods
  37. Consuming too much chloride
    -may lead to hypertension in salt-sensitive patients
  38. Not consuming enough chloride
    it is rare usually happens with people with eating disorders
  39. 6 diseases related to fluid and electrolyte imbalance
    -dehydration

    -heat stroke

    -water intoxication

    -hypertension

    -neuropsychiatric disorders

    -msucle diorders
  40. When does heat stroke occur?
    if the bodys temperature regulation mechanisms fail

    *occurs in hot humid environments
  41. What is hypertension? (4)
    -chronic condition characterized by high blood pressure

    • *** systolic +140
    • *** Diastolic +90

    *may not show symtpoms
  42. High sodium intake AND hypertension
    -there is no evidence that high sodium leads to hypertension but health organizations recommend a reduced sodium intake
  43. 2 functions of selenium
    • -antioxidant
    • *part of glutathione peroxidase enzyme system

    • -production of thyroxine
    • *a thyroid hormone
  44. Sources of selenium
    -organ meats, pork, seafood. nuts. wheat, rice
  45. Selenium toxicity (3)
    -brittle hair and nails

    -skin rashes

    **results from supplements
  46. 2 diseases associated with deficiency in selenium (4)
    • -keshan disease
    • *heart disease

    • -kashin beck disease
    • *an arthritis

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