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Lewis Henry Morgan
- Lawyer turned anthropologist who studied the Iriqois and in to evolution
- Leader of progressivism-diffusion and unilineal evolution.
- Societal evolution and Evolution of Governments
- Look at societies outside of time as living fossils. Not used much today. Savagery (lower, middle, upper) to Barbarism (lower, middle, upper) to civilization
- Effects are political, civil, and religious
Evolutions of Government
- Societas-patrilineal clans (kinship) is the first stage. Evolve in complexity to tribe then tribe confederacy
- Civitas-township based organization. Evolve in complexity to province then nation-state
- Studied political organization based on type of government
- Band-no power/authority, egalitarian. Even though some might find meat first, all will get it
- Tribal cultivators-limited power and authority. Usually generous ex; Potlaches
- Chiefdom-much power and authority, which is more permanent with symbols like crown/hat. Socioeconomic stratification, with few having access to limited resources, giving them capital over the masses. Marriage can be used to maintain stratification=stratum endogamy
- State-Lots of power and authority over many communities in a region with a central government. Usually fiscal control (tax), draft, population control (passports, immigration, birth policies), judiciary laws, law enforcement (military, police)
Ability to exercise will over others
Socially approved use of power
- Friend-friend=perhaps power but no authority
- Parent-child=changes as a function of age of the child and means of authority can change in society (spanking?)
- Police-citizen=power and authority for police
- 3 dimensions of sociostratification;
- economic (based on wealth)
- political (based on power)
- social (based on prestige)
- "Hegemony and Resistance"
- Created concept of hegemony-dominance of one social group over other by means of an ideology that justifies their power, claiming its for the good of all. Better than coercive rule which is expensive and unstable.
Resisting Hegemony, looking at public transcript, hidden transcript, public expression
Public interactions between powerful and subordinate to show power
Behind the back of the powerful to critique. Can be turned into Public Expression
Publicly showing discontent. A classic weapon of the subordinate is music
Mechanisms that regulate behavior, formal and informal
Formal Means of Social Control
Laws and regulations
Informal Means of Social Control
- Moral injuctions-can be religious
- Ostracism-excluded from society or activity
- Gossip-regulates behavior, but usually just makes in done in secret vs. public
- Satire-erodes prestige
- Public humiliation-self explanatory (to catch a predator)
- Media-education/propaganda campaigns. Use shame, humiliation, fear tactics Ex; Peta and smoking ads. Often use children to shame adults
- "American Schoolrooms; Learning the Nightmare"
- Form of teaching has changed from rote learning to free thinking, but kids still must be enculturated to conformity so that they're manageable.
- Learn competition and behavior. Failure is punished, but success is not necessarily rewarded
Shearing and Stenning
- "Say Cheese"
- Social control mechanisms in Disney World
- Car lanes and tool booths for efficiency
- Physical and natural barriers
- Employee surveilence
- Staged photos for publicity
- Characters don't talk
- Control is consensual because they can take away your access to the park
- "Biometric Security"
- Physical-face, fingerprint, etc
- Behavioral-handwriting, voice pattern
- Focus on history (not cultural consequences) creates governmentality (Foucault) and Panopticism where people monitor themselves because they know/think they're being watched
- Hershel 1858 India 1st used handprint for legal binding
- Galton search for racial link to fingerprints. Found no link, but did find all had different prints
- Bertillon mugshots, fingerprints, and other biodata for police in Paris. Thought this could bring utopia
- Current biodata innovations have similar talk
- Used to be super important
- Δ is male
- ☐ is female
- = is marriage
- children left to right=oldest to youngest
- Blood relatives
- Parents, not step parents
- brothers and sisters if share a bio parent
- aunt and uncle sometimes depending on if through marriage
- all cousins
- Through marriage
- Step/in law etc (this can include certain aunts and uncles)
- No relation
- God parents, "uncle", adoption, foreign exchange, frats/sororities
- Unilineal-traced either through mom (matrilineal) or dad (patrilineal)
- Bilateral-traced through mom and dad
- Important for interactions, debts, vengeance, and inheritance
- "Joking Relationships"
- Colonial administrator turned anthropologist
- Proponent of functionalism-understand how institutions function and search for universal laws. A departure from the evolutionary perspective, looking at how it functions instead of wondering how it arose. Look at marriage and jokes; asymmetrical and symmetrical with younger inlaws and same age inlaws (joking relationship). Formal relationship between husband and elder. This maintains order and reduces tensions because wife is still part of parents family, so they must protect her
- Definition varies by culture
- Murdock-Social group characterized etc., defined by living together, economic cooperation, sexual relations. Exceptions where spouses don't coreside and same sex no biological kids
- US Census- 2 or more people related by birth, marriage, or adoption who live together
- Kotak-Family of orientation-where you grew up Family of procreation-spouse and kids
- William Skimer-Family Systems-Describes systems with different obligations and normative manner in which processes unfold. Conjugal (nuclear) like US separates by generation and Stem (extended) 2 or more generations but only one married kid is heir and gets to remain in the house Joint (extended) 2 or more generations and 2 or more marriages per generation. Inheritance to all living in the house. Is very complex and can fall apart easily
US Family System
Monogamous, conjugal (nuclear) wife takes surname, siblings inherent equally, sometimes oldest son gets a bit more
- "Focus on the Fridge"
- Fridge as become universal in the US. It used to imply female gender dimensions, now is more male associated. According to Maschio It is a ritual space where people put special stuff on it; photos of special people, magnets about identity, personal notes and calendars=command and control center.
- Refrigerator rights associated with it like do you help yerself at a strangers/lesser known person's house? Is there and age for "help yerself"? Nocturnal raids suggest limited access
Difficult to define. Patrilocality-live in his house. Matrilocality-her house. Neolocality (like the US). Incest taboos in all societies, but definition of incest can change; US includes all consanguineal, afinal, and fictive in at least some manner (legally). Culturally cousins are included as incest, but legally it is okay. Nepal use patrilineal descent, so unless they are related to dad, they're fair game. In fact, mom's sibling's kid is preferred
Groom's family pays bride's family to compensate for loss of family member to other family
Bride's family pays groom's family because they have economically burdened them by adding a wife to the mix, and this provides the bride with economic security
Widower marries the sister of his deceased wife
Widow marries the brother of her deceased husband
Marriage preferred within a certain social group that one belongs to (Age, race, religion, socioeconomic, etc)
Marriage outside one's group is preferred (family or gender are most common)
- "Land of the Walking Marriage"
- Yunon Province, China has no formal marriage system
- Musuo Family System-female heads household. Males walk back and forth. No dowry or coresidence. Love based, and can have multiple lovers.
- Still there are rules; need approval from parents and friends. Gifts are exchanged (dowry/bridewealth-ish?) Land stays in consanguineal family and all siblings contribute to welfare of family. No in law conflicts is a bonus