Hydrology Exam 1.txt

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Hydrology Exam 1.txt
2013-03-06 12:50:43

Hydrology Exam 1
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  1. Adhesion:
    ability to stick to solid surfaces
  2. Cohesion:
    ability to stick to itself (surface tension)
  3. Water melting point:
    0°C, 32°F
  4. Water boiling point:
    hundred degrees Celsius, 212°F
  5. Calorie:
    the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water 1°C
  6. Specific heat capacity:
    the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of unit mass of the substance by 1°
  7. Specific heat:
    the ratio of specific heat capacity to that of water
  8. Conductivity:
    ability to transfer heat
  9. Latent heat of fusion:
    the amount of heat per-unit mass required to change substance at it's melting point completely to a liquid at the same temperature
  10. Latent heat of vaporization:
    the amount of heat per-unit mass required to change a substance at its boiling point completely to a gas at the same temperature
  11. Viscosity:
    inability to flow; Internal friction of the liquid
  12. Compressibility:
    Negligible for most practical purposes, however on global scale it is significant. Without compressibility, oceans would be more than 100 feet higher
  13. What is special about the surface tension of water?
    Higher than normal, exception being liquid metals
  14. Capillarity:
    resulting from a combination of surface tension and adhesion. Ability to climb up a wall
  15. Humidity:
    the amount of water vapor a volume that air can hold at a given temperature and pressure
  16. Vaporization:
    a phase transition from liquid to gas
  17. Evaporation:
    vaporization occurring below boiling point
  18. What has an effect on evaporation:
    Temperature, salinity, water depth, wind, relative humidity
  19. Condensation:
    the change from gas to liquid
  20. Dewpoint:
    the temperature at which saturation occurs and condensation begins
  21. Condensation nuclei:
    tiny particles providing the surface on which water forms
  22. Welwitchia:
    Plant in Namibia that depends almost entirely on dew for water
  23. National Weather Service class A pan:
    2 feet radius, 10 inches deep
  24. Forms of precipitation:
    drizzle, rain, sleet, snow, and hail
  25. Drizzle (size):
    .1-.5 mm
  26. Rain (size):
    .5-5 mm
  27. Convection:
    heat transfer via motion of fluid
  28. Cyclonic precipitation:
    Occurring at a front, lifting of warm air over cold air
  29. Convective precipitation:
    • Attributed to I'm even heating of the ground and adiabatic cooling, occurring mostly in the summer and in the Great Plains
    • thermal lifting of air to form a thunderstorm cloud
  30. Orographic precipitation:
    • associated with windward sides of mountain ranges, often occurring in
    • combination with cyclonic or convective precipitation; lifting against
    • the mountain front
  31. Global air circulation order, from poles:
    • Polar cell, polar front, Ferrell cell, horse latitude, Hadley cell, doldrums – ITCZ
    • (Highest salinities at horse--30 degrees, due to evaporation)
  32. At 60°:
    air converges, rises, air pressure is low, climate is wet. Polar Front
  33. At 30°:
    air splits, westerlies towards poles, tradewinds towards equator easterly. Horse latitude
  34. Cloud seeding:
    CO2 pellets are dropped into a cloud; silver iodide is dissolved in a flammable liquid then vaporized in a gas flame to produce smoke
  35. Wettest place in the United States:
    Kauai, Mt. Waialeale
  36. Driest place in US:
    Death Valley, California
  37. Driest place in the world:
    Kalama, desert in North Chili
  38. Wettest place for sudden rain:
    north east India