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Maintains the internal environment aka
Most, but not all, organs are innervated by both the....
Response of the effectors depends on the...
sympathetic and parasympathetic
The ANS has two divisions:
The ANS Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Divisions:
- Parasympathetic division - important for control of 'normal' body functions,
- e.g., normal operation of digestive system
- Sympathetic division - also called the 'fight or flight' division; important
- in helping us cope with stress
What is main controller of the ANS?
What is the Limbic system
A complex system of nerves and networks in the brain which has pathways to ANS that controls the basic emotions and drives.
Peripheral Portion of the ANS:
Visceral afferents = _________
Peripheral Efferents = __________
- Which in turn can be divided into 2 main parts:
- Sympathetic- Fight or flight
- Parasympathetic- Rest & Digest
Comparison of the Somatic Nervous System and the Autonomic Nervous System:
Where are the somas found in the Parasympathetic NS:
Somas found in the brain stem and in the lateral grey horns in S2 - S4
The ANS Uses Two Motor (Efferent) Neurons That Synapse in Autonomic Ganglia. Where are their somas found?
Preganglionic & Postganglionic neuron:
- Preganglionic Neuron
- ---Sympathetic NS: Somas found in lateral grey horn of T-1 to L-2.
: Somas found in the brainstem and in lateral grey horn in S2 - S4
- Postganglionic Neuron:
- ---Sympathetic NS:
- Somas are found in sympathetic trunk or chain ganglia or in special ganglia of the head & abdomen.
Somas are found in ganglia at the site of action
Where are somas found?
---Sympathetic NS: Somas are found in sympathetic trunk or chain ganglia or in special ganglia of the head & abdomen.
---Parasympathetic NS: Somas are found in ganglia at the site of action
Where are somas found?
---Sympathetic NS: Somas found in lateral grey horn of T-1 to L-2.
---Parasympathetic NS: Somas found in the brainstem and in lateral grey horn in S2 - S4
The ANS uses two ________ neurons that ______ in the Autonomic ________.
Contain intrinsic neurons that secrete Dopamine
Integration may take place here so the CNS may not be the only place where it occurs!
Sympathetic Nervous system ANatomy:
Preganglionic effernt Neurons:
Use as neurotransmitter?
Short,myelinated fibers, and leave spinal cord via ventral root and then out the white rami communicantes
Synapse in ganglia or in adrenal medulla
Have a thoracolumbar origin and use ACh as the neurotransmitter on nicotinic receptors.
Sympathetic NS Paravertebral ganglia:
3 pairs of ganglia in the neck?
What do they do?
- Sympathetic Trunk
- Superior, Middle, and Inferior cervical ganglion.
- Superior:Supplies pupil,salivary glnds& heart
- Middle:Supplies upper resp. tract & heart
- Inferior:Supplies upper resp. tract & heart
Prevertebral gangliasplanchnic rami:
What do they do?
- Intestinal or collateral ganglia
- Celiac Ganglion:Supplies liver,spleen,& kidney
- Superior Mesenteric Ganglion: LG Intestines
- Inferior Mesenteric Ganglion: Lg Intestines, urinary bladder, and genetalia.
Sympathetic NS Postganglionic efferent Neurons:
Prevertebral postganglionic axons travel..
- Sympathetic trunk & grey rami communicantes
- (what about these ^^^^)
- Splanchnic nerves to target organs
Postganglionic efferent Neurons:
Some use... called?
Fibers that innervate sweat glands & blood ves..
Receptors for ACh are....
Most use _ as a neurotransmitter .. called?
Receptors for NE are?
ACH neurotransmitter - Cholinergic
of skeletal muscles mainly use Muscarinic recep
- Nicotinic- Act as receptor & ion chan
- Muscularinic 1- (EPSP) & 2 (IPSP)- act a G-proteins to open ion channels
- Most use NE these are called Noradrenergic
- Recptors for NE are: Alpha 1&2 Beta 123
Most use NE these are called ?
Recptors for NE are:
- Alpha 1&2 Beta 123
RECEPTORS- Alpha 1 Alpha 2 Beta 1 Beta 2
Activate which Second Messengers?
- Alpha 1: Most sympathetic target tissue.
- Activates SM: Phospholipase C
- Alpha 2: GI tract and pancreas.
- Activates SM: Inhibits cAMP
- Beta 1: Heart muscles & kidneys
- Activates SM: cAMP
- Beta 2: Blood vessels, smooth muscle of some organs.
- Activates SM: cAMP
Cotransmitters are also released with _____ & ______ and play a small role with _____ _____ ______
- ACh & NE
- ATP, Dopamine, Neuropeptides
Like a "ganglion" of postganglionc neurons produces...
Sometimes known as....
Mass activation of...
Epinephrine & controlled by sympathetic preganglionic neurons
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Preganglionic Efferent Motor Neurons:
Have a _____ origin that uses _____.
Four pairs of ganglia in the _____.
All rest of ganglio are in...
- Craniosacaral origin that uses ACH
- Long fibers
- Synapse In Ganglia
Pterygopalatine Ganglion - Lacrimal and nasal mucous glands, pharynx, palate.
- Ciliary Ganglion: Postgang. fibers go to eye muscles & constrictor fibers of the iris.
- Submandibular Ganglion: to salivary glands but not parotid.
- Otic Ganglion: to parotid salivary gland
- All rest of ganglio are in... organs being innervated and supplied by vagus nerve, X
Which nervous system do MOST of the cholinergic receptors belong to?
Parasympathetic Nervous system
Exceptions include: _________
-When ACh binds to muscularinic receptors on SA node......
-When NE attaches to SA node beta receptors..
-What are chemo receptors in carotid & aorta
- The receptors allows K+ ions to escape-- Hyper-polarizing the cells which slows down the heart rate.
- The cardiac cells depolarize faster and contract harder thus increasing heart rate.
Visceral Afferents are chemoreceptors
Smooth Muscles (around blood vessels)
If muscle fibers use:
A-1 receptors, they contract when...
A-Adrengeric receptors always....
B-Adrengeric receptors promote....
Beta-1 or Muscularinic receptors....
Vessels to skeletal muscles/smooth muscles mostly has...
- Attached by NE
- -Always vasoconstrict
- -Promote relaxation of smooth muscles
- -Receptors relaxes/dilates
- -Mostly has Beta2 & Muscularinic receptors
Effects of Catecholamines in the brain:
Nonadrenergic NonCholinergic Fiber
(Fibers that do not use ACH or NE instead they use __ , ___, and ___)
- -Instead they use ATP, VIP, and NO
- Vessels to penis dilate
- NO causes vasodilation of cerebral arteries
AGONIST AND ANTAGONIST OF ACH & NE
Sympathetic Vs Parasympathetic Comparison