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2013-03-06 23:14:50

ANS TEST3 Physiology
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  1. Maintains the internal environment aka
  2. Most, but not all, organs are innervated by both the....
    Response of the effectors depends on the...
    sympathetic and parasympathetic

  3. The ANS has two divisions:
  4. Parasympathetic division
    Sympathetic division
  5. The ANS Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Divisions:
    • Parasympathetic division - important for control of 'normal' body functions,
    • e.g., normal operation of digestive system

    • Sympathetic division - also called the 'fight or flight' division; important
    • in helping us cope with stress
  6. What is main controller of the ANS?
  7. What is the Limbic system
    A complex system of nerves and networks in the brain which has pathways to ANS that controls the basic emotions and drives.
  8. Peripheral Portion of the ANS:
    Visceral afferents = _________
    Peripheral Efferents = __________
    • Sensory
    • Which in turn can be divided into 2 main parts:
    • Sympathetic- Fight or flight
    • Parasympathetic- Rest & Digest
  9. Comparison of the Somatic Nervous System and the Autonomic Nervous System:
  10. Where are the somas found in the Parasympathetic NS:
    Somas found in the brain stem and in the lateral grey horns in S2 - S4
  11. The ANS Uses Two Motor (Efferent) Neurons That Synapse in Autonomic Ganglia. Where are their somas found?
    Preganglionic & Postganglionic neuron:

    • Preganglionic Neuron
    • ---Sympathetic NS: Somas found in lateral grey horn of T-1 to L-2.

    ---Parasympathetic NS: Somas found in the brainstem and in lateral grey horn in S2 - S4

    • Postganglionic  Neuron:
    • ---Sympathetic NS:
    • Somas are found in sympathetic trunk or chain ganglia or in special ganglia of the head & abdomen.

    ---Parasympathetic NS: Somas are found in ganglia at the site of action
  12. Postganglionic  Neuron:
    Where are somas found?
    ---Sympathetic NS: Somas are found in sympathetic trunk or chain ganglia or in special ganglia of the head & abdomen.

    ---Parasympathetic NS: Somas are found in ganglia at the site of action
  13. Preganglionic Neuron:
    Where are somas found?
    ---Sympathetic NS: Somas found in lateral grey horn of T-1 to L-2.

    ---Parasympathetic NS: Somas found in the brainstem and in lateral grey horn in S2 - S4
  14. The ANS uses two ________ neurons that ______ in the Autonomic ________.
    • Efferent
    • Synapse
    • Ganglia
  15. Autonomic Ganglia
    Contain intrinsic neurons that secrete Dopamine

    Integration may take place here so the CNS may not be the only place where it occurs!
  16. Sympathetic Nervous system ANatomy:

    Preganglionic effernt Neurons:
    Leave Via?
    Use as neurotransmitter?
    Short,myelinated fibers, and leave spinal cord via ventral root and then out the white rami communicantes

    Synapse in ganglia or in adrenal medulla

    Have a thoracolumbar origin and use ACh as the neurotransmitter on nicotinic receptors.
  17. Sympathetic NS Paravertebral ganglia:
    3 pairs of ganglia in the neck?
    What do they do?
    • Sympathetic Trunk
    • Superior, Middle, and Inferior cervical ganglion.

    • Superior:Supplies pupil,salivary glnds& heart
    • Middle:Supplies upper resp. tract & heart
    • Inferior:Supplies upper resp. tract & heart
  18. Sympathetic NS
    Prevertebral gangliasplanchnic rami:

    3 ganglions:
    What do they do?
    • Intestinal or collateral ganglia
    • Celiac Ganglion:Supplies liver,spleen,& kidney
    • Superior Mesenteric Ganglion: LG Intestines
    • Inferior Mesenteric Ganglion: Lg Intestines, urinary bladder, and genetalia.
  19. Sympathetic NS Postganglionic efferent Neurons:
    Prevertebral postganglionic axons travel..
    • Unmyelinated
    • Sympathetic trunk & grey rami communicantes
    • (what about these ^^^^)
    • Splanchnic nerves to target organs
  20. Postganglionic efferent Neurons:
    Some use...     called?
    Fibers that innervate sweat glands & blood ves..
    Receptors for ACh are....

    Most use _ as a neurotransmitter .. called?
    Receptors for NE are?
    ACH neurotransmitter - Cholinergic

    of skeletal muscles mainly use Muscarinic recep

    • Nicotinic- Act as receptor & ion chan
    • Muscularinic 1- (EPSP) & 2 (IPSP)- act a G-proteins to open ion channels

    • Most use NE these are called Noradrenergic
    • Recptors for NE are: Alpha 1&2  Beta 123
  21. Most use NE these are called ?
    Recptors for NE are:
    • Noradrenergic
    • Alpha 1&2  Beta 123
  22. RECEPTORS- Alpha 1 Alpha 2 Beta 1 Beta 2
    Found in?

    Activate which Second Messengers?
    • Alpha 1: Most sympathetic target tissue.
    • Activates SM: Phospholipase C

    • Alpha 2: GI tract and pancreas.
    • Activates SM: Inhibits cAMP

    • Beta 1: Heart muscles & kidneys
    • Activates SM: cAMP

    • Beta 2: Blood vessels, smooth muscle of some organs.
    • Activates SM: cAMP
  23. Cotransmitters are also released with _____ & ______ and play a small role with _____ _____ ______
    • ACh & NE
    • ATP, Dopamine, Neuropeptides
  24. Modulators
  25. Adrenal Medulla:
    Like a "ganglion" of postganglionc neurons produces...
    Sometimes known as....

    Mass activation of...
    Epinephrine & controlled by sympathetic preganglionic neurons

    Fight-or-flight System

  26. Parasympathetic Nervous System
    Preganglionic Efferent Motor Neurons:
    Have a _____ origin that uses _____.
    Synapse at?
    Four pairs of ganglia in the _____.
    All rest of ganglio are in...
    • Craniosacaral origin that uses ACH
    • Long fibers
    • Synapse In Ganglia

    • Head:
    • Ciliary Ganglion: Postgang. fibers go to eye muscles & constrictor fibers of the iris.

    Pterygopalatine Ganglion - Lacrimal and nasal mucous glands, pharynx, palate.

    • Submandibular Ganglion: to salivary glands but not parotid.
    • Otic Ganglion: to parotid salivary gland
    • All rest of ganglio are in... organs being innervated and supplied by vagus nerve, X
  27. Which nervous system do MOST of the cholinergic receptors belong to?

    Exceptions include....
    Parasympathetic Nervous system

    Exceptions include: _________
  28. HEART
    -When ACh binds to muscularinic receptors on SA node......
    -When NE attaches to SA node beta receptors..
    -What are chemo receptors in carotid & aorta
    - The receptors allows K+ ions to escape-- Hyper-polarizing the cells which slows down the heart rate.

    - The cardiac cells depolarize faster and contract harder thus increasing heart rate.

    Visceral Afferents are chemoreceptors
  29. Smooth Muscles (around blood vessels)

    If muscle fibers use:
    A-1 receptors, they contract when...
    A-Adrengeric receptors always....
    B-Adrengeric receptors promote....
    Beta-1 or Muscularinic receptors....
    Vessels to skeletal muscles/smooth muscles mostly has...
    - Attached by NE

    • -Always vasoconstrict
    • -Promote relaxation of smooth muscles
    • -Receptors relaxes/dilates
    • -Mostly has Beta2 & Muscularinic receptors
  30. Effects of Catecholamines in the brain:
    Neuromodulators involved
    Prefrontal cortex:
  31. Nonadrenergic NonCholinergic Fiber
    (Fibers that do not use ACH or NE instead they use __ , ___, and ___)

    What dilates?
    No causes...
    • -Instead they use ATP, VIP, and NO
    • Vessels to penis dilate
    • NO causes vasodilation of cerebral arteries
  33. Sympathetic Vs Parasympathetic Comparison