Order: Primates

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Order: Primates
2013-03-09 19:58:30
Exotic Animals Two

Exotic Animals
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  1. How many species of primates are there?
  2. What are the anatomical characteristics of primates?
    • clavicle
    • halux or big face
    • pectoral mammae
    • simplex uterus
    • pendulous penis
    • scrotal testes
  3. Where do most tropics live?
    in tropics
  4. Why are many primates endangered?
    due to habitat destruction and bush meat
  5. Which primates are found in old world?
  6. Where are the new world monkeys?
    North and South America
  7. Where are the old world monkeys?
    Africa and Asia
  8. Which primate is closely related to us?
  9. What do primates mostly eat?
    herbivores and fruitivores
  10. What type are Prosimians?
    • Lemurs
    • Tree Shrew
    • Bush Babies
  11. Describe Lemurs.
    • only live on Madagascar
    • have multiple births (usually 2)
  12. What type of climate do new world monkeys live in?
    tropical rain forests
  13. What families of primates live in new world?
    • Family Callithricidae
    • Family Cebidae
  14. What monkeys are in Family Callithricidae?
    marmosets and tamarins
  15. What is the difference between marmosets and tamarins?
    tamarins have longer incisors then marmosets
  16. Describe marmosets.
    • multiple births are common
    • male carries young to female for nursing
    • yearling learn from their parents
    • need family unit
  17. Where in their environment do marmosets and tamarins live?
    high in trees
  18. Where do we find the family Cebidae?
    from Mexico to South America
  19. What kind of tails do primates in the family Cebidae have?
    prehensile tails
  20. Do primates in the family Cebidae have cheek pouches?
  21. Do primates in the family Cebidae have ischial pads?  What are ischial pads?
    • no
    • thickenings on either side of anus from sitting on the ground
  22. What are some examples of primates in the family Cebidae?
    • squirrel monkey
    • spider monkey
    • owl monkey
    • capuchin monkey
    • howler monkey
    • wooly monkey
  23. Old World monkeys are in which family?
    Family Cercopithecidae
  24. Where are old world monkeys?
    from Africa and Asia
  25. Do old world monkeys have cheek pouches?
  26. Do old world monkeys have prehensile tails?
  27. Do old world monkeys have ischial pads?
    yes because many are ground dwellers
  28. What are some examples of old world monkeys?
    • guenons
    • vervets
    • patas
    • langurs
    • macaques (rhesus, stump-tail, pig-tail)
    • baboon
    • drill
    • mandrill
  29. What kind of eaters are folivorous monkeys and what kinds of stomachs do they have?  What do we need to watch for?
    • leaf eating monkeys
    • sacculated stomachs
    • bloat
  30. Which monkeys are folivorous monkeys?
    • langurs
    • proboscis monkeys
  31. What are the two types of apes?
    • lesser apes
    • great apes
  32. What are some examples of lesser apes?
    gibbons - Hylobates
  33. What are some examples of great apes?
    • chimpanzee - Pan troglodytes
    • gorilla - Gorilla gorilla
    • orangutan - Pongo pygmaeus
  34. Which primates share 98% of our genes?
    gorillas and chimps
  35. Can primates get human diseases?
    yes, keepers wear masks and gloves because anything we can get, they can get
  36. What is the life span of a non-human primate?
    • 10 - 55 years
    • smaller species live shorter lives
  37. What typically causes behavior problems in non-human primates?
  38. Psychological enrichment is required under which act for non-human primates?
    Animal Welfare Act
  39. What is the difference between the old non-human primate habitats and the new ones?
    • the old ones are concrete with metal bars
    • the new ones look more like natural habitats and have much more psychological enrichment
  40. What kind of temperatures do non-human primates prefer?
    warmer temperatures
  41. Which monkeys have menstrual cycles?
    old world monkeys
  42. Which monkeys have sex skins (swell when in heat)?
    old world monkeys
  43. What will male monkeys often do when stressed?
  44. Do monkeys breed well in captivity?
  45. Do female monkeys have the same reproductive problems as humans?
  46. Poor mothering is common in monkeys.  What do the monkeys do?
    will not hurt the babies, just leave them on the ground and walk away
  47. What does a prepared monkey diet look like?
    • primate diet
    • monkey biscuit (25% for new world monkeys and 15% protein for old world monkeys)
    • require vitamin C and D3 (new world monkeys)
  48. Should we give primates lots of fruit?
  49. Is it okay to give primates lots of vegetables?y
  50. What is fibrous osteodystrophy?  What causes it?  What are the clinical signs?
    • metabolic bone disease
    • calcium and vitamin D deficiency
    • reluctance to move, abnormal gait, folding fractures, swollen extremities
  51. What does starring mean in a primate?
  52. What do monkeys typically do when we manually restrain them?
    scream, poop, and pee all at once
  53. Which primates do we normally have to use a dart gun on?
    baboons and great apes
  54. Baboons and great apes learn who shoots the darts.  What will they do?
    avoid them or attack them
  55. How do we manually restrain small monkeys?
    using gloves or towels
  56. How do we manually restrain large monkeys?
  57. What is a restraint chair used for?
    • used in research
    • for constant infusions
  58. How do we get a monkey under anesthesia?
    • give injection and then mask down using isoflurane
    • intubate
    • keep warm
  59. How do we position monkeys after inducing them under anesthesia and why?
    • do not keep them sternal because it puts more weight on their chest
    • have them sit up, lay on back or on side
  60. Where can we collect blood in a monkey?
    • cephalic vein
    • saphenous vein
    • femoral vein
    • jugular vein
  61. How do we identify the different monkeys?
    • tattoo gums, chest, or abdomen
    • computer chip
    • individual appearance
  62. What is important to remember when we are giving oral medications to primates?
    it must taste good or they will not take it
  63. What are the three types of herpes viruses that monkeys can get?
    • herpes T
    • herpes simplex
    • herpes B
    • herpes ateles
    • simian agent 8
  64. What is Herpes T?  Who are carries?  Which monkeys can this be fatal to?
    • oral and conjunctival ulcers
    • carried by squirrel monkeys
    • fatal in marmosets, aotus, and tamarins
  65. What is Herpes Simplex?  Which monkeys can this be fatal to?
    • fever blisters
    • fatal in marmosets, aotus, and tamarins
  66. What is Herpes B?  What are other names for this disease?  Who are carriers?  Who is this fatal to?
    • oral ulcers and vesicles (little bumps)
    • Monkey B, H. simiae
    • fatal to humans - encephalomyelitis
  67. Who is the natural host for Herpes ateles?  What can is cause in marmosets, aotus, and tamarins?
    • natural host is the spider monkey
    • can cause lymphoma in marmosets, aotus, and tamarins
  68. Who is the carrier for Simian agent 8?  What does it cause in green monkeys?
    • baboons are the carriers
    • causes vesicles in green monkeys (african monkeys that live high in trees)
  69. What human diseases are most common in monkeys?
    • rubella
    • rubeola (measles)
    • hepatitis A
    • polio
  70. What are the different pox viruses in monkeys?
    • monkey pox
    • yaba pox
    • BEMP
  71. What are the clinical signs of monkey pox?
    • skin papules
    • vesicles
    • ulcers
  72. What does the yaba pox cause?  What is the carrier of this disease?
    • oncogenic - causes cancer
    • carried by mosquitos
  73. What does BEMP stand for?  Which monkeys does it affect?  What are the clinical signs?
    • benign epidermal monkey pox
    • affects macaques
    • see papules
  74. What do filoviruses cause?
    hemorrhagic diseases
  75. Which types of monkeys do we see filoviruses in?
    old world monkeys
  76. What are some different types of filoviruses?
    • Simian Ebola-like filovirus (Reston virus)
    • Ebola virus
    • Marburg disease (green monkey disease)
    • Simian hemorrhagic fever
  77. What are the different types of Retroviruses?
    • Simian T-cell leukemia virus
    • Simian retrovirus (SAIDS)
    • Simian immunodeficiency viruses (related to HIV-2)
  78. What is the Picornavirus?
  79. What is the reservoir for Picornavirus?   Who does it affect?  WHat are the clinical signs?
    • rodent reservoir
    • affects elephants and primates
    • sudden death, frothy from nose and mouth, lesions in the heart
  80. What are the most common zoonotic diseases?
    • tuberculosis
    • monkey B
    • monkey pox
    • ebola
    • reston virus
    • marburg disease
    • hepatitis A/B
    • rabies
    • salmonellosis
    • shigellosis
  81. What does tuberculosis cause?
    granulomas in lungs and abdomen
  82. How often are primates tested from tuberculosis in captivity?  After we give them the intradermal injection, how often do we check the spot?
    • every 30 days
    • check at 24, 48, and 72 hours
  83. Are false positives and negatives a problem when testing for tuberculosis?
  84. What are some protozoa that affect monkeys?
    • amoeba
    • giardia
    • flagellates
    • balantidium
    • toxoplasma
    • plasmodium
  85. What are some worms that affect monkeys?
    • nematodes (nodular worms, strongyloides, pinworms)
    • acanthocephalans (prosthenorchis elegans)
  86. What are the common causes of enteritis in monkeys?
    • bacteria
    • protozoa
    • nematoes
  87. What is the most common clinical sign of enteritis is monkeys?
  88. What are the different types of bacteria that can cause enteritis in monkeys?
    • salmonella
    • shigella
    • ecoli
    • campylobacter
  89. What is our main concern when a monkey gets enteritis?
    • dehydration
    • hard to get fluids in them and dehydration can kill them
  90. What are the causes of pneumonia in monkeys?
    • measels
    • influenza
    • lung mites
    • bacteria (most common reason)
    • fungi
  91. What are the different dietary diseases in monkeys?
    • scurvy
    • metabolic bone disease
  92. What are the clinical signs of scurvy in monkeys?
    • gum hemorrhages
    • swelling of epiphyses
  93. What causes metabolic bone disease in monkeys?  What are the clinical signs of this disease?
    • vitamin D3 and Ca deficiency
    • pathological fractures
  94. What are some other diseases in monkeys?
    • SIV
    • Simian T-lymphotrophic virus
  95. What are the clinical signs of allergies in monkeys?
    respiratory, skin, or GI signs
  96. How do we treat allergies in monkeys?
    can give Benadryl
  97. Which types of monkeys do we typically vaccinate?  What kind of vaccines do we do?
    • great apes
    • tetanus, rabies, polio, measles
  98. Do monkeys live in groups or families?
    yes, isolation can cause problems
  99. Do monkeys have a hierarchy in their groups?
  100. What is trauma usually due to in monkeys?
    fighting and environmental hazards
  101. When a monkey hurts itself, can we bandage them?
    no, they will take the bandage off...must keep it clean
  102. Why usually causes fighting with monkeys in captivity?
    people throwing things into their exhibit and then they will fight over it
  103. What usually happens if the hierarchy is disrupted?  What can we do to help with this?
    • will get aggressive...may bit and try to kill the monkey if there is no escape
    • keep monkeys in large cages so the victim monkey can have a place to escape to
  104. How do we psychologically castrate a monkey?
    • cut down canine teeth
    • will keep males from ripping open the females
  105. Which monkeys are prone to having twins?
  106. What happens when monkeys have triplets?
    mother will not take care of the third baby and will have to be handraised
  107. What is cross fostering?
    giving baby to another mother to raise