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What are the two types of memory?
- 1) Primary memory
- 2) Secondary memory
memory for the immediate past or events that have recently been in consciousness
knowledge of previous events that are not currently part of thought or attention
The sense of self is defined by 3 components. What are they?
- Material self: everything we call our own
- Social Self: the recognition we get from other people
- Spiritual self: our inner or subjective being
who was the first to examine the circumstances under which people feel good or bad about themselves?
Self Esteem Equation as noted by James:
- Self-Esteem= Achievement/attempts
- so, you can imporve your self esteem by
- 1) improving performance at activities attempted
- 2) attempting less. lol
James-Lange Theory of Emotion:
emotion is determined by experience of body's reaction to stimulus
James's Legacy in Psychology (5 points)
- James' writing made psych more acceptable
- Explicitly incorporated Darwinism into psych
- Expanded the subject matter of psychology
- Encouraged expanded methodologies
- Pragmatism still a driving force in psych.
Men Show greater trait variability than women
education thought to cause physical and emotional harm to women in what 2 ways?
disruption of menstrual cycle and disrution of maternal urge
First woman president of APA
Mary Whiton Calkins
Made contributions to memory research
Mary Whiton Calkins
Conducted research on child labor
Helen Bradford Thompson
What did Helen Bradford Thompson Wooley's findings on variablity hypothesis?
Found few differences in men and women. attributed differences to environment. Largely dismissed as feminine bias =(
What did Leta Stetter Hollingworth's research on the Variability Hypothesis find?
- no differences in variability by gender
- Intellectual ability, sensation/perception, physical abilities not reduced during menstruation
First African American to earn a PhD
Francis Cecil Summer
Who was the first Black woman to earn a PhD (University of Cincinnati, 1933)
Inez Beverly Prosser
Who received the first US PhD in Psychology?
Granville Stanley Hall
1st American research psych lab
1st American psychology journal (American journal of Psychology, 1887)
Helped establish American Association
One of the 1st applied psychologists
Granville Stanley Hall
Believed human development at individual level follows evolutionary development of species
Pioneer of developmental/lifespan psychology
Became first chair of psychology at the Un. of Chicago
Most work was in progressive education
- promoted student-centered learning rather than topic-centered learning
- coined the term "learning by doing"
received honorary degrees from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton but never finished his PhD
James Rowland Angell
Tenents of Functionalism: 3
- 1) the task of functionalism is to discover how a mental process operates, what it accomplishes, and under what circumstances it occurs
- 2) mental processes mediate between the needs of the organism and the nature of the environment
- 3) functionalism recognizes no meaningful distinction between the mind and the body
Functionalist approach- like others, critical of reductionist Stimulus-Response, thinking
Focus on Motivations and drives in causing behavior
Believed physiological-based mechanisms drives behavior
Dynamic Psychology (Robert Sessions Woodworth)
Federal spending on education in 1870?
federal spending on education in 1915
Three areas of applied psychology
- 1) Psychological Testing
- 2) Clinical Psychology
- 3) Industrial/Organizational Psychology
______ & _______ of mental phenomena is perhaps the only topic fully within the confines of psychology.
Assessment and measurement
taught first psychology class in statistics. used pearson's R, chi-square test, use of control group. developed order of merit ranking system
James McKeen Cattell
who supervised more PhDs than any other psychologist
The most important psychology journals today
"Tell me what you are looking for, and I will tell you what you will find"
Proposed that cognitive abilities should be studied directly rather than indirectly
by the 19th century, the dominant belief was that all mental illness was rooted in _____ &_____ _________.
physiology & brain chemistry
Reforms of the 19th century
- Moral therapy
- treating paitents normally
- encouraging social interaction
- focus on relationships
- individual attention
- replaced confinement, maintained calm and order, relied on occupational therapy
Reasons for increase in patients in asylums
civil war vets & immigration
Mental Hygiene movement
Witmer's practice more closely resembled modern
Who is considered to be the Father of Clinical Psychology
Witmer: 3 Attributes of Clinical Psychology
- 1) A science-based experimental psychology can be useful in helping people
- 2) Psychology accepts the contributions of other disciplines (namely medicine and social work), but help can best be provided by profession independent of these other professions- and independet profession of psychology
coinded the term clinical psychology
Father of Applied Psychology
Walter Dill Scott