H&S Exam 2

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H&S Exam 2
2013-03-06 17:53:39
history systems psychology

flash cards for the second exam.
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  1. What are the two types of memory?
    • 1) Primary memory
    • 2) Secondary memory
  2. Primary memory:
    memory for the immediate past or events that have recently been in consciousness
  3. Secondary Memory
    knowledge of previous events that are not currently part of thought or attention
  4. The sense of self is defined by 3 components. What are they?
    • Material self: everything we call our own
    • Social Self: the recognition we get from other people
    • Spiritual self: our inner or subjective being
  5. who was the first to examine the circumstances under which people feel good or bad about themselves?
  6. Self Esteem Equation as noted by James:
    • Self-Esteem= Achievement/attempts
    • so, you can imporve your self esteem by
    • 1) improving performance at activities attempted
    • 2) attempting less. lol
  7. James-Lange Theory of Emotion:
    emotion is determined by experience of body's reaction to stimulus
  8. James's Legacy in Psychology (5 points)
    • James' writing made psych more acceptable
    • Explicitly incorporated Darwinism into psych
    • Expanded the subject matter of psychology
    • Encouraged expanded methodologies
    • Pragmatism still a driving force in psych.
  9. Men Show greater trait variability than women
  10. education thought to cause physical and emotional harm to women in what 2 ways?
    disruption of menstrual cycle and disrution of maternal urge
  11. First woman president of APA
    Mary Whiton Calkins
  12. Made contributions to memory research
    Mary Whiton Calkins
  13. Conducted research on child labor
    Helen Bradford Thompson
  14. What did Helen Bradford Thompson Wooley's findings on variablity hypothesis?
    Found few differences in men and women. attributed differences to environment. Largely dismissed as feminine bias =(
  15. What did Leta Stetter Hollingworth's research on the Variability Hypothesis find?
    • no differences in variability by gender
    • Intellectual ability, sensation/perception, physical abilities not reduced during menstruation
  16. First African American to earn a PhD
    Francis Cecil Summer
  17. Who was the first Black woman to earn a PhD (University of Cincinnati, 1933)
    Inez Beverly Prosser
  18. Who received the first US PhD in Psychology?
    Granville Stanley Hall
  19. 1st American research psych lab
    1st American psychology journal (American journal of Psychology, 1887)
    Helped establish American Association
    One of the 1st applied psychologists
    Granville Stanley Hall
  20. Believed human development at individual level follows evolutionary development of species
    Recapitulation Theory
  21. Pioneer of developmental/lifespan psychology
    GS Hall
  22. Became first chair of psychology at the Un. of Chicago
    Most work was in progressive education
    John Dewey
  23. Progressive Education
    • promoted student-centered learning rather than topic-centered learning
    • coined the term "learning by doing"
  24. received honorary degrees from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton but never finished his PhD
    James Rowland Angell
  25. Tenents of Functionalism: 3
    • 1) the task of functionalism is to discover how a mental process operates, what it accomplishes, and under what circumstances it occurs
    • 2) mental processes mediate between the needs of the organism and the nature of the environment
    • 3) functionalism recognizes no meaningful distinction between the mind and the body
  26. Functionalist approach- like others, critical of reductionist Stimulus-Response, thinking
    Focus on Motivations and drives in causing behavior
    Believed physiological-based mechanisms drives behavior
    Dynamic Psychology (Robert Sessions Woodworth)
  27. Federal spending on education in 1870?
    $63 million
  28. federal spending on education in 1915
    $605 Million
  29. Three areas of applied psychology
    • 1) Psychological Testing
    • 2) Clinical Psychology
    • 3) Industrial/Organizational Psychology
  30. ______ & _______ of mental phenomena is perhaps the only topic fully within the confines of psychology.
    Assessment and measurement
  31. taught first psychology class in statistics. used pearson's R, chi-square test, use of control group. developed order of merit ranking system
    James McKeen Cattell
  32. who supervised more PhDs than any other psychologist
  33. The most important psychology journals today
    Psychological Review
  34. "Tell me what you are looking for, and I will tell you what you will find"
    Alfred Binet
  35. Proposed that cognitive abilities should be studied directly rather than indirectly
  36. by the 19th century, the dominant belief was that all mental illness was rooted in _____ &_____ _________.
    physiology & brain chemistry
  37. Reforms of the 19th century
    • Moral therapy
    • treating paitents normally
    • encouraging social interaction
    • focus on relationships
    • individual attention
    • education
    • replaced confinement, maintained calm and order, relied on occupational therapy
  38. Reasons for increase in patients in asylums
    civil war vets & immigration
  39. Dorthea Dix
    Mental Hygiene movement
  40. Witmer's practice more closely resembled modern
    school psychology
  41. Who is considered to be the Father of Clinical Psychology
    Lightner Witmer
  42. Witmer: 3 Attributes of Clinical Psychology
    • 1) A science-based experimental psychology can be useful in helping people
    • 2) Psychology accepts the contributions of other disciplines (namely medicine and social work), but help can best be provided by profession independent of these other professions- and independet profession of psychology
  43. coinded the term clinical psychology
  44. Father of Applied Psychology
    Walter Dill Scott