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which of the following diseases is not usallycontracted by the respiratory
A commensal bacterium?
May be opportunistic pathogen
Which of the statements is true ?
symbiosis refers to different organisms living together.
A nosocomial infection is?
Acquired through the course of hospitalization
The major significance of kochs work was that?
Not all diseases are caused by microorganisms
Mechanical transmission differs from biological in that mechanical transmission?
doesn’t involve specific diseases
Which of these infections can cause septicemia?
Which type of infection is caused by septicemia?
Transient micro biota differs from normal microbiota because transient micro biota?
Which of the following statements about nosocomial infections is false?
Patient was infected before hospitalization
One effect of washing regularly with antibacterial agents is the removal of normal micro biota this can result in?
increased susceptibility in disease
Which of the following is not a reservoir of infection?
All of the above
Which of the following is a fomite?
A hypodermic needle
Symptoms od disease differ from signs in that symptoms?
Are felt by the patient
The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called?
Emergence of infectious diseases can be due to all the following except?
Microbes trying to cause disease
Which of the following can result in postoperative infections?
All of the above
A cold transmitted by a facial tissue is an example of?
Influenza transmitted by an unprotected sneeze is an example of ?
A std is an example of?
Plaque transmitted by a fleas is an example of ?
The yeast candida albicans does not normally cause disease because of ?
Hoemophilus bacteria require heme protein produced by staph bacteria this is an?
Pseudomonas bacteria colonized the bile duct of a patient following his liver transplant surgery. This is an example of?
Incidence in polio in the us the period between 1945 and 1955 indicates ?
an epidemic level
The most frequently used porta of entry for pathogen is?
Mucous membranes of respiratory tract
Which of the following diseases id not usually contracted by the respiratory?
Most pathogens that gain access through the skin?
Enter through hair follicles and sweat ducts
The IA 50 is a?
dose that will cause an infection in 50% of test population
Cytopathic effects are changes in host cells due to ?
Which of the following does not contribute to symptoms of a fungal disease?
Which of the following is not considered entry via the paranetal route?
A cell wall can incrase a bacteriums virulence because cell wall lipid?
Botulism is caused by a proenaceous exotoxin therefore it can be easily prevented by ?
boiling food brior to consumption
Symptoms of protozoan and helminthic disease are due ?
all of the above
Which of the following does not contribute to the virulence of of a pathogen?
all of the above
A needle stick is an example of which portal of entry?
Polio virus is ingested and gains acess to tissues by which portal of entry?
Endotoxins in sterile injectable drugs could cause?
septic shock symptoms
The administration of ampicillin before surgery?
Decreses the risk of staph infection
Innate immunity is ?
the bodys ablility to ward off diseases
Which of the following is not a physical factor protecting the skin and mucous membranes from infection?
The function of ciliary escalatoris to ?
remove microorganisms from the lower respiratory tract
Which of the following exhibits the highest phagocytic activity?
Margination refers to?
Adherence of phagocytes to the lining of blood vessels
The swelling associated with the inflammation decreases when the fluid?
Goes into the lymph capillaries
Which is not a fuction of inflammation?
To produce antibodies
Chill is a sign of?
Body temp is rising
Macrophages arise from which of the following?
All of the following occur during inflammation what is the first step?