Devel Psych unit 2 test

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tresa
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Devel Psych unit 2 test
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2013-03-06 17:26:08
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ch 7-10
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  1. Achievement
    test
    • assess specific info learned in school. Some critics suggest portfolios of children’s
    • school work is better indicator of actual school learning
  2. Attachment theory
    John Bowby: attachment theory

    Ability to make strong emotional bonds is innate

    • Bonds have survival value that assure nurturing (they’re
    • cute)

    • Bonds are maintained by instinctive behaviors that
    • create/sustain proximity.

    • Attachment – emotional bond that give a person a sense of
    • security

    • Ethologists (studies organism’s relationship w/ his
    • environment) believe the first 2 years constitute a sensitive period for
    • attachment in human infants.

    Synchrony – emotional dance b/w mother and child

     

    4 phases

    • Nonfocused
    • orienting and signaling 0-3mo

    • Focus on 1+ figures
    • 3-6mo

    • Secure base
    • behavior 6-24. True attachment emerges, clinging stage.

    • Internal model,
    • child can imagine how her behavior would affect the bonds w/ her caregiver.
    • 24+mo
  3. Inclusion
    Putting special ed kids in classrooms.
  4. Brain
    growth areas
    • From 10-12 years – frontal lobes and cerebral cortex add
    • synapses. Associated w/ gains in logic and planning.

    • Frontal lobes and reticular formation (retention) links are
    • improving. 12yr olds develop selective attention – focused on important
    • elements.

    • Associated area neurons – sensory motor and intellectual
    • functions are linked. Contributes to +in info-processing speed.
  5. Decentration
    taking multiple variables into account
  6. Effects of divorce
    Exhibit declines in school performance

    Show more aggressive, defiant, or depressed behaviors

    More likely to engage in criminal behavior in adolescence

    • Children in step-parent families have higher rates of
    • delinquency, more behavior problems, and lower grades

    Higher risk of mental problems in adulthood

    • Lack financial and emotional support needed for success in
    • college

    Struggle with fears of intimacy in relationships

    More likely to divorce themselves

    Short term: effects are more severe for boys
  7. Egocentric
    • Child tendency to look at things from his/her own
    • perspective

    May create frustration in communication

    Piaget three-mountain task
  8. Emotional regulation
    Acquisition of emotional self-regulation

    Associated w/ peer popularity

    Lack of control (impulsive) associated w/ aggression.

    Ability to obey moral rules

    Associated w/ emergence of empathy
  9. Erikson’s stages
    • psychosocial theory:
    • 1 trust vs. mistrust
    • 2 autonomy vs. shame/doubt
    • 3 initiative vs. guilt
    • 4 identity vs. role confusion
    • 5 intimacy vs. role confusion
    • 6 intimacy vs. isolation
    • 7 generatively vs. stagnation
    • 8 integrity vs. dispair

    • (devel influenced by common cultural demands and
    • internal drives. each state requires solution of crisis, healthy devel = ratio
    • of =/- experiences).
  10. Fine motor skills
    From 6-8yrs

    Increase in sensory and motor cortex

    Linked to improvements in hand-eye coordination

    Fine motor skills
  11. Freud’s stages
    • Psychosexual
    • theory – oral, anal, phallic,
    • latency, genital stages.


    • Id –libido
    • Ego – thinking element
    • Superego – moral judgment
  12. Gender schema theory
    • Learn gender scripts. Learn likes/dislikes of own gender. Devel complex view of other
    • gender.
  13. Immersion/submersion
    education
    • Submersion: Language minority students are placed in an
    • ordinary classroom where English is spoken. no special program to help them
    • overcome the language problem. described as sink or swim' The minority home
    • language (L1) is not used at all in the classroom

     

    • Structured Immersion: Instruction is in the second
    • language (L2), as in the case of submersion, but there are important
    • differences. The immersion teacher understand L1, and students can address the
    • teacher in L1; the immersion teacher, however, generally replies only L2.
    • Furthermore, the curriculum is structured so that prior knowledge of L2 is not
    • assumed as [material] is
    • taught. Content is introduced in a way that can be understood by students.
  14. Inductive logic
    Moving from personal experience to a general principle. Like inductive discipline.
  15. IQ test
    • Lewis Terman –Intelligence quotient (IQ) – mental age/chronological age X 100 = IQ.
    • 2/3 children are b/w 85-115
  16. Lateralization
    Growth of corpus callosum b/w left and right cortex

    • Helps create functional specialization of left
    • and right hemispheres
  17. Metacognition
    • Knowledge ab& control of thought process. Enables child to generate strategies to
    • solve problems.
  18. Moral
    realism stage
  19. 1. Moral Realism – Belief that rules can’t be changed because
    • they come from authority figures. Belief that violating rules leads
    • to punishment
  20. Moral relativism stage
    2. Moral Relativism (after age 8)

    • Realization that rules can be changed if
    • all agree. Punishment doesn’t come by rules violations—but by being caught!
    • Accidents are not caused by “naughty” behavior .
  21. Myelinization
    • formation of myelin sheath covering individual axons& insulating/speeding up neuronal
    • processes
  22. Parenting styles
    • Authoritarian – +levels of demand/control, Low levels of
    • warmth and communication

    • Consequences: Children do well in
    • school. Have lower self esteem, Typically less skill w/ peers. Some appear
    • subdued, Other show high aggressiveness, Traits last well into high school

    • Permissive – High in warmth and communication, Low in demand
    • and control

    • Consequences: Do slightly worse in
    • school during adolescence. Likely to be more aggressive. Somewhat more
    • immature. Less likely to take responsibility, Less independent

    Authoritative

    • High in warmth an communication,
    • High in demand and control

    • Consequences – Most consistently
    • positive outcomes. Children show higher self-esteem, More independent. More
    • likely to comply w/ parental requests. Show more altruistic behaviors, Self-confident
    • and achievement oriented, Get better grades in school

    • Maccoby and miller added uninvolved, neglecting. Low in
    • demand/control, low in warmth/communication

    • Consequences – Most consistently
    • negative outcomes.  Disturbances in
    • social relationships
  23. Phonological awareness
    A child’s sensitivity to sound patterns that are specific to a lang.
  24. Piaget’s stages
    Piaget’s 2 stages

    Making judgments about right and wrong

    • 1. Moral Realism – Belief that rules can’t be changed
    • because they come from authority figures. Belief that violating rules
    • leads to punishment

    2. Moral Relativism (after age 8)

    • Realization that rules can be changed if
    • all agree. Punishment doesn’t come by rules violations—but by being caught!
    • Accidents are not caused by “naughty” behavior .
  25. Social Status types
    • Ascribed statuses – Statuses based on
    • inborn characteristics, such as gender, Achieved
    • statuses – Statuses that individuals gained through
    • their own efforts.
  26. Spatial perception
    • Helps w/ activities such as map reading. Improves learning math concepts and
    • problem-solving.

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