Ornithology

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Author:
lucashall
ID:
205478
Filename:
Ornithology
Updated:
2013-03-08 15:15:34
Tags:
Midterm
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Description:
Biogeographical realms
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  1. Afrotropical

    1550 species
  2. Antarctic

    35 species

    Seabirds
  3. Australasian

    900 species

    Emus, bowerbirds, birds of paradise
  4. Indomalayan

    2400 species
  5. Nearctic

    750 species (migratory)

    Relatively low diversity
  6. Neotropical

    3700 species

    "Bird continent"
  7. Oceanian

    Low diversity

    Unique species by island
  8. Palearctic

    1025 species (migratory)

    Largest realm

    Likely origin of birds
  9. Characteristics of birds in comparison to other vertebrates
    • Fusion/reduction of bones
    • Pneumatic bones
    • Small size
    • Forelimbs specialized for flight
    • Centralized body mass
    • High metabolism
    • Developed nervous system
    • Good vision
  10. Origin of birds - why reptilian?
    • Feathers as modified scales
    • Scales on legs
    • Single occipital condyle
    • One middle-ear bone
    • Lower jaw
    • Nuclei in red blood cells
    • Ankle structure
    • Lay eggs
    • Urogenital system
  11. Theropod or Thecodont and why?
    Theropod Dinosaur: transitional species, uncinate processes, incubation of eggs & nests, 3 digit foot, protein similarities, tail reduction. Against: dinosaurs had feathers but did not fly 

    Thecodont: some tree dwellers, laterally compressed. Against: no fossil evidence of feathered thecodont
  12. Evolution of flight - arboreal or cursorial, evidence?
    The arboreal hypothesis proposes that evolution of flight began in trees where a bird would use feathered limbs to glide or parachute downward. Evidence: dinosaur fossil with feathered hindlimbs

    The cursorial hypothesis proposes that evolution of flight began on the ground when birds would use feathered limbs to provide balance and momentum while running. Evidence: WAIR
  13. Factors responsible for current distributions
    • History - continental drift, climate change, adaptive radiations, modern introductions
    • Ecological tolerances - current climate, environmental conditions, habitat, interspecific interactions
    • Dispersal barriers, vagility, physical barriers, interaction barriers, chance
  14. 3 types of feathers
    • Vaned feathers: flight, contour
    • Downy: down, semiplume
    • Other: bristles, filoplumes
  15. Function of feathers
    • Protection
    • Prevent desiccation
    • Temperature regulation
    • Locomotion (flight, swimming, WAIR)
    • Behavior (display, sound)
    • Provisioning of young
  16. Origin of feathers
    • A Theropod
    • 125 million years ago
    • Not for flight
    • Many other theropods
  17. Structure of feathers
    • Beta-Keratin
    • Rigidity
    • Hydrophobic
  18. Why do birds molt?
    • Feather wear and tear
    • Reproductive displays (breeding)
    • Camouflage
    • Parasites
    • Birds molt from the inside feathers outward
  19. Mechanics of flight
    • Lift vs. gravity
    • Thrust vs. drag
    • Alula reduces turbulence from the air moving over the wingcovert feathers and reduces turbulence
  20. Types of flight
    • Thermal or slope soaring (vultures)
    • Dynamic soaring (albatross)
    • Flapping (in formation - reduces energy costs)
    • Hovering
    • Intermittent flight (flap bounding and gliding)
  21. Adaptations for flight - weight reduction
    • Pneumatic bones
    • Feathers—dead
    • Elimination of most skin glands
    • Toothless bill (beta keratin)
    • Loss and fusion of some bones
    • Keeled sternum
    • Sclerotic ring - rapidly focusing eye
    • Air sacs
    • Oviparous, gonad atrophy
    • Rapid digestion
    • Uric acid—no urine fluid or bladder
  22. Adaptations for flight - power supply
    • Endothermic w/4 chambered heart (300 beats/minute)
    • Energy rich diet—rapid metabolism (40-42 C)
    • High glucose content in blood (twice humans)
    • High pressure circulation
    • Efficient respiratory system (coordination with wing beats)
  23. Wing loading?
    • Area of the wing vs. weight of the bird
    • Lower wing loads are not as fast, but are more maneuverable
  24. Aspect ratio?
    • Wing length vs. chord length (width)
    • High aspect are long narrow wings
    • Low aspect are short wide wings
  25. Role of wishbone in starlings
    • Wishbone (furcula) = production of negative pressure
    • Acts in concert with wing beats
    • Leads to increased respiration rate
    • In starlings, it acts as a spring bending laterally during the downstroke by the pectoralis and recoiling during the upstroke by the supracoracoideus
  26. Functions of bird feet
  27. Toe arrangements - Anisodactyl
  28. Toe arrangements - Zygodactyl
  29. Toe arrangements - Heterodactyl
  30. Toe arrangements - Syndactyl
  31. Toe arrangements - Pamprodactyl
  32. Foot topography - Palmate
  33. Foot topography - Totipalmate
  34. Foot topography - Semipalmate
  35. Foot topography - Lobate
  36. Foot topography - Raptorial
  37. Digestive system facts
    • Efficient and lightweight
    • Digest a variety of foods
    • Digest very quickly (inefficient)
    • Food passes through their bodies in ~5-20% of the time it takes mammals and reptiles of similar size
  38. Digestive system diagram
  39. Avian stomach
    • Proventriculus (glandular stomach)
    • Ventriculus (gizzard)
    • Practically no cecum, nutrient intake happens primarily in intestines
    • Bile and pancreatic fluids pass with food
  40. Urea or Uric Acid
    • Birds - uric acid, low solubility
    • Mammals - urea dissolved in urine
  41. Cloaca
    • Coprodaeum - waste
    • Urodaeum - ”urine” and sperm or eggs
    • Proctodaeum - ejection
  42. Functions of nasal cavities
    • Clean
    • Heat
    • Remove water
    • Olfactory receptors
  43. Air sacs
    • Older than “birds”
    • Usually nine, but ranges from 7-12
    • No oxygen exchange
    • “Bellows”
    • Sound production
  44. Purpose of circulatory system
    • Heat transfer
    • Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide transfer from muscles
    • Glucose
    • Fatty acids
    • Hormones
  45. Heart
    • 4 chambers
    • Large
    • High Pressure
    • Lower heart rate
  46. Torpor
    • Facultative hypothermia
    • Many birds up to 6 C
    • Humminbirds (8 - 20 C)
    • Common poorwill (4.3 C)
  47. Endocrine
    • Small organs regulating hormones, growth, metabolism
    • Endocrine because no ducts—directly into blood stream
  48. Urogenital
    Excretory and reproductive systems
  49. Reproductive differences
    • No penis
    • No scrotum
    • One ovary, a few exceptions
  50. Excretory differences
    • Mammals excrete urea (toxic, dilution)
    • Birds excrete urates (insoluble)
    • Adaptation for water conservation
    • Eggs
  51. Avian cognition
    • Pigeons 725 different visual patterns
    • Tool use
    • Episodic memory in jays—recall of events
    • taking place at a specific time or place
    • Owls have sophisticated hearing—developed
    • via learning
    • Parrots—vocal learning
    • Parrots communication
    • Jays plan for future
    • Spatial memory
    • Count

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