Micro Test 2

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Author:
bhansen04
ID:
205485
Filename:
Micro Test 2
Updated:
2013-03-06 19:08:40
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Microbial Metabolism
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Description:
Microbial Metabolism Ch 5
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  1. What is metabolism?
    all chemical reactions in a living organism. The aquiring of and use of energy.
  2. What is anabolism?
    the building of large macromolecules from smaller component parts; requires energy.
  3. What is catabolism?
    the breakdown of large macromolecules into smaller component parts (building blocks); releases energy.
  4. What molecule is the "exchange currency" (“ultimate energy”) for energy reactions?
    ATP - Adenosine triphosphate
  5. Is all chemical energy converted to ATP by catabolic reactions?
    yes
  6. How do enzymes work (address activation energy, reaction rate, spatial relation of substrates)?
    enzymes facilitate reactions by lowering the activation energy. Without an enzyme, chemical reactions are dependent on the collision of particles. Particles must collide at a certain speed in order for the reaction to occur that speed is the activation energy. Enzymes act on specific substrates like a lock and key.
  7. Why are enzymes an advantage for biological reactions?
    They speed up the rate at which all parts of a reaction react.
  8. Why are enzymes catalysts?
    They are substances that speed up a chemical reaction without being altered or used up.
  9. What is enzyme specificity?
    They only act upon a very specific substrate, fitting together like a "lock and key".
  10. What are cofactors and coenzymes and their roles?
    many enzymes need non-protein cofactors or coenzymes in order to function. Cofactors are metal ions (minerals) and conenzymes are organic molecules (vitamins ie. NAD and NADP)
  11. **Recognize the activity of an enzyme by its name (ie-dehydrogenase, oxidase, peptidase, etc.)
  12. What are the physical factors that affect enzyme activity?
    Temperature, pH and substrate concentration
  13. Why are denatured enzymes inactive?
    Because they can't go back to their original shape and can no longer function.
  14. What is the difference between a competitive and noncompetitive inhibitor?
    A competative inhibitor alters the active site for the substrate where a non-competative inhibitor does not.
  15. Where does energy come from for phosphorylation of ADP in each of the 3 types of phosphorylation?
    1. Substrate-level Phosphorylation: high energy phophate is added to ADP to make ATP 2. Photophosphorylation: energy from sunlight 3. Oxidative Phosphorylation: electron transport chain
  16. In chemiosomosis, where does energy come from to run the proton pumps?
    Electron Transport Chain. The build-up of protons will provide enough energy for the generation of ATP.
  17. How does chemiosmosis work?
    protons are pumped from higher to lower concentrations across the membrane through protein channels. As the protons move through, energy is released and is used to synthesize ATP from ADP+P.
  18. What enzyme converts energy from the flow of incoming protons to ATP?
    ATP Synthase
  19. What is carbohydrate catabolism?
    breakdown of carbohydrates to generate energy by cellular respiration or fermentation.
  20. What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration? What are the final electron acceptors in each?
    Aerobic is with oxygen; final acceptor is O2, anaerobic is without; final acceptors are organic substances other than o2.
  21. What are the final electron acceptors in fermentation?
    An organic molecules
  22. Why is fermentation an important economic procedure?
    It is used in many different foods but also pharmaceuticals and fuel (methane)
  23. What must happen to lipids before they can be used for energy?
    They must be broken down by lipases into 2-carbon fragments which are then added to the Kreb's Cycle as acetyl CoA
  24. What happens to proteins and amino acids so they can be used for energy?
    Proteases are secreted to break down protein into amino acids. Amino group removed & converted to ammonium ion & excreted waste. What remains goes into Krebs Cycle.
  25. How much ATP is made from anaerobic respiration?
    variable (>2 and <38
  26. How much ATP is made from fermentation?
    2
  27. How much ATP is made from aerobic respiration? (Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Chain)
    36 or 38
  28. What large molecules can be created in anabolic reactions?
    Proteins and nucleic acids

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