Health Assessment mid-term: oto-opthalmoscope exam

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jam110007
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205494
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Health Assessment mid-term: oto-opthalmoscope exam
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2013-03-06 19:23:29
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Health Assessment mid term oto opthalmoscope exam
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Health Assessment mid-term: oto-opthalmoscope exam
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  1. what is the purpose for an eye exam?
    • - to assess anterior structure of the eye
    • - assess optic disc
    • - to asses blood vessels
    • - to assess retina
    • - to assess the macula
  2. diopter
    • unit that measure the power of lens to converge or diverge light 
    • - setting 0 is for people w/ perfect or corrected vision
    • - red: myopic (nearsighted) minus numbers
    • - black: hyperopic (farsighted) plus numbers
  3. how do i see thought the iris?
    • - darken the room (make pupil dilate as much as possible)
    • - relax eyes as if gazing into distance
    • - patients looks in the distance
  4. what about using medicine when doing an eye exam?
    • - mydriatic drugs: dilate the pupil 
    • - contraindications: medication not advisable due to head injury or suspicion of narrow-angle glaucoma
  5. how should you stand in position to the patient when doing an eye exam
    • - as you inspect the right eye, you should stand on the right of the patient with your right arm on the patients shoulders, while looking through your right eye
    • - same for left
  6. ophthalmoscopic exam
    • Relax eyes as if gazing into distance
    • Place your left hand on patient’s forehead
    • Examine right eyee
  7. when shining the light on the pupil, what should occur?
    you should look for a red reflex
  8. what should we look for in the anterior eye when looking through the opthalmoscope
    • - virtreous floaters: dark specks or strands
    • - cataracts: densities in lens
  9. finding optic disc
    - follow blood vessel centrally until you locate disc (vessels enlarge as you move centrally)

    - adjust lens of ophthalmoscope
  10. what should we observe in the optic disc
    • - border: blurred nasally 
    • - color: yellowish orange to creamy pink
    • - rings or crescents 
    • - physiologic cup  (yellow-white)
    • - symmetry
  11. what should we observe in the retina?
    • - blood vessels
    • - lesions
    • - fovea and macula
  12. eye: artery VS. vein
    • artery
    • - color: light red
    • - light reflex: bright

    • vein 
    • - color: dark red
    • - light reflex: absent
  13. inspection of fovea
    -hight concentration of cones for central vision and high resolution vision
  14. inspection of macula
    distinct darker pigmentation
  15. clues for hearing problems?
    • - lip reading
    • - frowning, straining
    • - posture of head
    • - misunderstanding
    • - speech garbled
    • - loud voice
    • - flat tone
  16. ear examination position
    • - head tilted away
    • - gently pull pinna
    • - otoscope upside down for children 
    • - hand against person's head
    • - insert speculum slowly and carefully
  17. otoscopic examination: external canal
    • - redness
    • - swelling
    • - lesions
    • - cerumen or foreign bodies
    • - discharge: color and odor
  18. otoscopic examination: tympanic membrane
    • color and characteristics
    • - landmarks
    • - light reflex 

    • position
    • movement

    integrity

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