Community Nutrition Test 1

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ktasky13
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205504
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Community Nutrition Test 1
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2013-03-07 00:06:35
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Community Nutrition
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Concordia College Community Nutrition Test 1
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  1. The condition of a population's or individual's health, including estimates of quality of life and physical and psychosocial functioning
    health status
  2. People who have a vested interest in identifying and addressing the nutritional problem
    stake holders
  3. figures pertaining to life events, such as births, deaths, and marriages
    vital statistics
  4. an evaluation of the community in terms of its health and nutritional status, its needs, and the resources available to address those needs.
    community needs assessment
  5. methods of data collection (5)
    • 1. survey
    • 2. focus groups
    • 3. screening
    • 4. Interviews
    • 5. Direct assessment
  6. the accuracy of the diet assessment instrument. It reflects the ability of a diet assessment instrument to measure what it is intended to measure; that is a valid instrument accurately measures an individual's usual or customary dietary intake over a period of time.
    validity
  7. the condition of a population's or individuals health as influenced by the intake and utilization of nutrients and non-nutrients
    nutrition status
  8. the population that is the focus of an assessment study or intervention
    target population
  9. steps for a needs assessment (7)
    • 1. define the problem
    • 2. set parameters
    • 3. collect data
    • 4. analyze data
    • 5. share your findings
    • 6. set your priorities
    • 7. choose plan of action
  10. broad statements of what the activity or program is expected to accomplish
    goals
  11. statements of outcomes and activities needed to reach a goal
    objectives
  12. data that describe or explain are considered subjective, and can be categorized or ranked but not quantified
    qualitative
  13. numerical data (such as serum ferritin, birth rate or income) that can be measured and are considered objective.
    quantitative
  14. people who are "in the know" about the community and whose opinions and insights can help direct the needs assessment
    key informants
  15. the proportion of individuals in the sample with the disease or condition who have a positive test for it.
    sensitivity
  16. the proportion of individuals in the sample without the disease or condition who have a negative test for it.
    specificity
  17. the repeatability or precision of an assessment instrument.
    reliability
  18. the study of epidemics
    epidemiology
  19. a particular instance of a disease or outcome of interest.
    case
  20. the probability or likelihood of an event occurring in this case, the probability that people will acquire a disease.
    risk
  21. clinically important signs associated with an increased likelihood of acquiring a disease.
    risk factors
  22. the number of new cases of a disease during a specific time period in a defined population.
    incidence
  23. hidden factors that impact results
    compounding factos
  24. the number of existing cases of a disease or other condition in a given population
    prevalence
  25. a well-defined group of people who are studied over a period of time to determine their incidence of disease, injury or death.
    cohort
  26. steps in epidemiology (9)
    • 1. observing
    • 2. counting cases
    • 3. relate cases to people at risk
    • 4. make comparisons
    • 5. tested hypothesis
    • 6. draw scientific inferences
    • 7. conduct experimental studies
    • 8. intervene
    • 9. evaluate
  27. like a snapshot, this type of study examines the relationship among dietary intake, diseases, and othe variables as the exist in a population at a particular time
    cross-sectional study
  28. like a moving picture, this type of study is an observational analytic study that can be retrospective or prospective in nature. Enrollment in the study is based on exposure characteristics or on membership in a group. Disease, death, and/or other health-related outcomes are then determined and compared.
    cohort study
  29. a type of observational analytical study: enrollment in the study is based on presence (case) or absense (control) of disease. Characteristics, such as previous exposure to a factor, are then compared between cases and controls.
    case control study
  30. the most rigourous evaluation of a dietary hypothesis including double blind experiments
    control study
  31. stages of change
    • 1. Precontemplation
    • 2. contemplation
    • 3. preparation
    • 4. action
    • 5. maintenence
  32. a discipline that strives to enhance health and prevent disease by improving the public's eating habits
    community nutrition
  33. people that interact with shared values
    community
  34. approach to collecting data on a population's health and nutrition status in which data collection occurs regularly and repeatedly
    surveillance
  35. a course of action chosen by public authorities to address a given problem
    ex. iodized salt, fortified milk, seatbelt laws, medicare
    policy
  36. complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease
    health defined by WHO
  37. WHO pre-requisites for good health
    • -freedom from war
    • -the satisfaction of basic needs
    • -the right to find meaningful work and perform as useful role in society
    • -equal opportunity for all people
  38. specific, measureable actions to be completed within a specified time frame
    objectives
  39. measurable activities carriet out by the nutritionists to achieve the outcome objectives
    process objectives
  40. measurable change in a health or nutritional outcome
    outcome objectives
  41. measurable activities surrounding the budget, staffing, patterns, management systems, use of organization resources and coordination of program activities
    structure outcomes
  42. testing certain elements of a program before it is implemented
    formative evaulation
  43. focus on how the program is delivered
    process evaulation
  44. whether a program accomplished its stated goals, to what extent
    process evaulation
  45. the process of measuring a programs effectiveness in changing one or more aspects of nutritional or health status
    outcome evaluation
  46. process of determining adequacy of the internal processes and resources needed to deliver the program
    structure evaluation
  47. the program's benefits relative to its cost
    fiscal evaluation
  48. the process by which authorities decide which actions to take to address a problem or set of problems
    policy making
  49. PAC
    political action committee, similar interests pool money to get political leaders to vote your way
  50. a set of nationwide guidelines that specify how the nutritional needs of the population will be met
    National Nutrition Policy
  51. National nutrition policy manifests itself in:
    • -healthy people 2020
    • -dietary guidelines
    • -regulations
    • -food labels
    • -food assistance programs
  52. the assessment of dietary or nutrition status at intermittent times with the aim of detecting changes in the dietary or nutrition status of a population
    national nutrition monitoring system
  53. a system that identifies specific individuals for nutrition or public health intervention, often at the community level
    screening
  54. measurement of indicators of dietary status and nutrition-related health status to identify the possible occurrence, nature and extent of impaired nutritional status
    assessment
  55. the assessment of dietary or nutritional status at intermittent times with the aim of detecting changes in the dietary or nutritional status of a population.
    monitoring
  56. a summary measure of overall diet quality compared to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Food Guide Pyramid
    Healthy Eating Index
  57. Healthy People 2020 primary goals
    • 1. eliminate preventable disease, disability, injury and premature death
    • 2. achieve health equity and eliminate health disparities
    • 3. create social and physical, environments that promote health for all
    • 4. promote healthy development and healthy behavior across every stage of life
  58. determinants of health
    • -biology
    • -behaviors
    • -social environment
    • -physical environment
    • -policies and interventions
  59. leading health indicators
    • physical activity
    • overweight and obesity
    • tobacco use
    • substance abuse
    • responsible sexual behavior
    • mental health
    • injury and violence
    • environmental quality
    • immunization
    • access to health care
  60. if dietetics is your profession __________ is your business
    public policy
  61. changes in US that impact policy
    • population getting older
    • increase in obesity
    • increase in diabetes
    • need preventative healthcare
    • licensure for the RD
  62. primary, secondary and tertiary health promotion
    • primary = prevention
    • secondary = intervention
    • tertiary = treatment

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