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benign prostatic hyperplasia
prostate specific antigen (under 1 is good)
Treat the ____ prostate.
____ cell patients do better than adeno.
hockey stick shape field is always ____?
Incidence of prostate ca:
____ although there appears to be some ____ relationship.
Often found concurrently w/ ____ ____ ____.
- benign prostatic hyperplasia
Penile/male urethra incidence:
Higher in ?
Penile ca is related to ____ ____?
Urethral ca is linked to chronic ____ and infections, ____, ____ diseases, and stictures.
- Asia, Africa, South America
- neonatal circumcision
Testicular cancers are rare, but ____ common ____ in men ages 20-34. Incidence is higer in males w/ ____ ____. (cryptoorchidism) Most common in ____ from the US, UK, and Denmark.
prostate- ____ is most common.
penile lesions- well differentiated ____ ____.
urethral lesions-well to moderately differentiated ____ ____.
prostatic urethral lesions- ____ ____.
bulbomembranous urethral lesions-____.
testicular- 95% ____ cell. (seminoma 35-50%)
- squamous cell
- squamous cell
- transitional cell
transurethral resection of the prostate
Most common age:
- after age 65
- between ages 20-34
XRT dose for penile/urethra ____Gy?
include ____ nodes.
XRT dose: TESTES
seminoma- ____cGy for stage I and stage IIA, boost of ____ -____cGy for stage IIA and higher.
nonseminoma (____) RT has ____ role in these tumors, except ____ of brain or other mets areas.
Cancer is ____ and developes in the ____ of the prostate. Benign is ____. ____ invasion is ____ is most ____ cases.
Detection and Diagnoses: PROSTATE
- -complete physical & rectal exams
- -diagnosis obtained through a trasrectal sonography guided needle biopsy
- -PSA (normal is 4ng/ml or less)
- -transurethral ultrasound
____ is used for staging prostate ca.
Prostate ca is the most common ____ in men. _:_ will develope in their lifetime. ____ ____ have one of the highest ____ in the world and a worse ____. Incresed risk in ____, Sweden, and ____. Decreased risk in ____, Taiwan, and ____ ____. Overall a slow growing malignancy.
- African Americans
- Jewish men
Prognostic factors for prostate ca? (4) (TRPL)
- Tumor stage
- Lymph node status
As prostate ca grows, it may ____ into and through the ____ , invade ____ tissue, ____ vesicales and eventually the ____ or ____.
Treatment techniques for prostate ca?
____ for patients over 75. ____ T1 or T2 stage disease and life expectancy of at least 10 years. ____ ____ regresses prostate tumor. ____ mostly used for mets disease. ____ ____ positively charged particles deliver dose. (Bragg's peak)
- hormonal therapy
- proton therapy
Hormonal therapy examples? (4)
Testes routes/sites of spread.
seminoma: ____ to lymph nodes of ____, mediastinal, and ____ nodes. Only ____ stage disease spread hematogenously to the ____, bone, ____ or brain.
nonseminomas- metastasize outside the ____ ____ involving lungs and ____.
Prostate major sites of spread are ____ and ____ ____. Blood goes to the ____, liver, and ____. Lymph nodes spread first to ____ and ____ nodes, followed by external ____, hypo gastric, common iliac, and ____ ____.
- lymph nodes
- para aortics