Endocrine System

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Endocrine System
2013-03-07 22:26:54

Endocrine System
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  1. Endocrine system works with....
    • Works in concert with the nervous system for body communication:
    • Neuro endocrine system and circulatory system with hormones.
  2. Endocrine System Controls _________
    by regulating...
    Assumes a role in....
    Contributes to the basic processes....
    • * Homeostasis
    • * By regulating chem composition & volume of internal environment
    • * Helps cope with trauma
    • * Assumes a role in the smooth integration of growth and development
    • * Contributes to the basic processes of reproduction
  3. Target organ cells:

    Cells acted on by....
    Some are very.....
    • * Cells that are acted on by a particular hormone
    • * Some hormones have very widespread targets, some are very specific
  4. Hormones act on target cells in three basic ways:
    • a. They control the rates of enzymatic reactions
    • b. They control transport of molecules across cell membranes
    • c. They control gene expression and the synthesis of proteins
  5. What are two regulatory chemicals in the body?
    Hormones & CO2
  6. General Organs of the Endocrine System
    • hypothalamus,
    • heart
    • stomach
    • small intestines
    • kidney
    • adipose besides glands whose primary function is to secrete hormones
  7. How do hormones act on the macroscopic level?

    How do hormones act on the cellular level?
    • Negative feedback usually
    • Like a thermostat

    • Hormone travels in the blood & is lipophobic
    • Ex: Catecholamines & Polypeptides hormones
    • Hormone attaches to specific mem. receptor
  8. Lipophobic hormones use receptors such as _____________________ to get into the cell
    c_AMP c_GMP CA++ IP3 DAg
  9. Non-typical or Candidate Hormones:

    Prostaglandins (Tissue hormones)
    rELEASED BY....
    What are the 3 classes that we look at?
    * Released by all cells but because they are so rapidly broken down, circulating levels are very low

    • * PGA
    • * PGE
    • * PGF
  10. 3 Classes of hormones based upon structure.
    * Amines - N containing derivatives of tyrosine or tryptophan.

    * Peptide Hormones - polypeptides and glycoproteins secreted from ribosomes as preprohormones which have their signal sequences removed in rER (and then converted to hormone form in the vesicles. May also be neuromodulators.

    • Steroids - not stored & all are derived from cholesterol made by the liver (sER)& travel bound to plasma proteins1.
    • production by gonads, adrenal cortex and placenta in sER2.
    • cholesterol stored as a non membrane bound lipid droplet.
    • Steroids made in mitochondria and sER
  11. Steroids are made in _________ and ________
    Production in ADrenal cortex and GOnads
    mitochondria and sER
  12. Hormones are secreted in response to.....
    Specific chemical stimuli usally in short bursts or pulses.
  13. GH is secreted most.....
    At the beginning of sleep
  14. Pulsatile secretion of hormones may help in....
    Down regulation
  15. What are the 3 types of chemical stimuli or input?

    How they are transported in blood affects....
    • NS to Neurotransmitters
    • Another hormone or Paracrine
    • (Plasma) of mineral ions or nutrients

    The amount of active hormone
  16. Presence or absence of receptors affects how hormones work on the _________
    List them
    Target cells.

    • Up-regulation
    • Down-regulation
    • Most target cells have only a few receptors (a few thousand) so the cell has a lowcapacity
    • Permissiveness
  17. Thyroid is permissive to _______ on _____
    Epinephrine -  Adipocytes
  18. TH is permisive to ____ ____ for the development of _____ ____
    • Reproductive Hormones
    • Reproductive System
  19. Estrogen is permissive to?
  20. Glucocorticoids are permissive for ________
  21. Some hormones aren't activated until their target cells convert them to the active form.

    Give an example:
    • T4  --> T3
    • or
    • Prehormone -> Prohormone -> active hormone (ex insulin)
  22. Synergism definition:

    Action of E & NE.....
    Milk production requires....
    *together, two hormone's effects are more than additive or complementary

    *Action of E & NE on heart is Additive

    *Milk production requires snergistic action of estrogen, cortosol, prolactin, oxytocin, etc
  23. Antagonism - Some hormones are antagonistic to other hormones.

    High estrogen antagonizes ______ actions

    Insulin and ___ are antagonistic 2 1 another

    GH is antagonistic to _____
    • PRL
    • Glucagon
    • Insulin
  24. Hormones are removed from blood via _____ or ___________

    Rate of secretion....
    Excretion or metabolic transformation

    ---The excretory rate is used to indicate the secretory rate
  25. What two organs break down or metabolizes steroids?
    Liver & Kidneys
  26. Half-Life

    Steroids have a _____ life than do....
    Longer life than do peptide or amine hormones.
  27. Hypersecretion
  28. Hyposecretion
  29. Pituitary Gland
    Connected to?
    Regulated by?
    Location - Sella Turcica Under Diaphragma Sellae

    hypothalamus via the infundibulum

    Regulated by hypothalamus

    Divided into 2 parts that are developmentally different: Anterior and Posterior Pituitary Gland
  30. FSH & Testosterone
  31. Pituitary Gland has 2 parts:
    Anterior &
    Supplied by?
    Neural secretions from......
    ^ process called?

    * ANT Pit supplied by Hypothalamo-Pituitary Portal system

    * Neural Secretions from hypothalmus travel from median eminence to the anterior pituitary controlling what hormones will be made.

    * This process is called releasing hormones or inhibiting hormones
  32. Endocrine gland makes up ____% of pituitary
    Includes the ___ _____ which is _____ and secretes _____
    • 75%
    • Pars intermedia
    • Avascular
    • MSH
  33. ANT PIT Contains 3 types of cells according to Azans Staining.
    • Acidophils
    • Basophils
    • Chromophobes
  34. Somatotrophs Secrete...
  35. Lactotrophs secrete
    Secrete PRL
  36. Corticolipotrophs
    Secrete ACTH and MSH
  37. Thyrotrophs
  38. Gonadotrophs Secrete
    Secrete FSH, LH, or ICSH
  39. Posterior Pituitary Gland
    Consists of....
    Two hormones are syn.........      What are they
    Secretes _____ hormones..... but does not produce
    • Neural Tissue
    • Synthesized by neurons in 2 areas of hypothalamus:  Vasopressin & Oxytocin

    Secretes Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) and Ocytocin (OT) but does not produce it
  40. GH
    Target Organs?
    Stimulates............       Product produced?
    What do they do?
    • Target Organ ________?
    • Actions:
    • Promotes Body Growth

    Decreases blood A.A levels

    Stimulates protein anabolism, hormone production by liver, and by target cells of GH

    • Hormone/Product produced =
    • Somatomedins (IGF-1) - Main stimulator of fetal growth.

    IGF-2 - Independent of GH, Stimulates tissue repair.
  41. Prolactin
    Target Organ?
    In both sexes PRL appears to.....
    Target Organ: Breast or corpus luteum

    • Actions:
    • * Promote breast developmnt during pregnancy
    • *Stimulates mammary glands to secrete milk after delivery
    • *in both sexes, PRL appears to play a role in regulation of the immune system.
    • * Inhibits gonadotrophins secretions inhibiting fertility
    • *In male may facilitate reproductive function
  42. TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone)
    Target Organ?

    Secretion from....
    • Stimulates thyroid gland to grow/ maintains it
    • Secretion from basophils stimulated by TRH
  43. FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone)
    Target Organ:

    In females stimulates....
    In males stimulates....
    Secretion from....
    • Target Organ: ______
    • F = Stimulates ovary to mature an ovum & stimulates follicle cells to secrete estrogen

    M = Stimulates seminiferous tubules to develop, be maintained, and produce sprem.

    Secretion from Basophils stimulated by FSH-RH
  44. LH
    (Internal cell stimulating hormone ICSH)
    In females stimulates....
    In males stimulates...
    Secretion from....
    F = Stimulates ovulation, corpus luteum to form, to secrete progestins, and estrogen

    M = Interstitial cells of testes to develop & secrete testosterone

    secretion from Basophils stimulated by LH-RH
  45. ACTH
    Target ORgan?
    Stimulates the....
    Production form...
    Stimulates adrenal cortex to grow normally, be maintained and to secrete glucocorticoids

    Production from basophils and release stimulated by ___________
  46. MSH
    Target Organs:

    Increases Synthesis....
    MSH is a major....
    Increases Synthesis & dispersion of melanin granules in skin causing hyperpigmentation

    MSH is a major appetite inhibitor works with leptin to control the use of lipids.
  47. B-Lipotropin (LPH)
    Target Organ?
    Is the....
    Prohormone of several endogenous opioids
  48. B-Endoorphin:
    Target Organ:
    • Raises the pain threshold
    • Stimulates release of PRL, GH, ADH
    • Inhibits TSH, LH and FSH production
  49. ADH (Antidiuretic hormone) or vasopressin

    Target Organ?

    large amount cause...
    Target organ ______.

    Decreases water loss by decreasing urine production

    Large amounts of ADH causes vasoconstriction of arterioles

    Increases memory and secretion of ACTH
  50. Osmoreceptors
    In hypothalamus detects and....
    This increases....
    In the hypothalamus detect and increase in blood osmolarity (due to dehydration)

    This increases water permeability of distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts to increase water reabsorbtion.