Digestive System Medical Terminology

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lhills
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205573
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Digestive System Medical Terminology
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2013-03-08 18:16:14
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Digestive System Medical Terminology
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Digestive System Medical Terminology
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  1. gastroenerologist
    physician who specializes in treating disorders of the digestive system
  2. endoscopy
    • -one of the most commonly used diagnostic tools in assessing GI problems
    • -involves use of a flexible lighted instrument to examine the lining of the digestive tract
    • -also used to inspect the esophagus, stomach, intestines and bile ducts
  3. primary function of digestive (GI) system
    • break down food
    • prepare it for absorption
    • eliminate waste substances
  4. What is included in the GI tract or alimentary canal?
    esophagus, stomach, intestines and several accessory organs (liver, gallbladder, & pancreas)
  5. how far does the GI tract extend?
    oral cavity to the anus
  6. teeth
    dent/o

    odont/o
  7. orth
    straight
  8. -ist
    specialist
  9. gingiv/o
    gums
  10. tongue
    gloss/o

    lingu/o
  11. hypo-
    under, below, deficient
  12. sub-
    under, below
  13. mouth (2)
    or/o

    stomat/o
  14. ptyal/o
    saliva
  15. -ism:
    condition
  16. -rrhea
    discharge, flow
  17. sial/o
    saliva, salivary gland

    • sialorrhea: excessive flow of saliva
    • (aka: hypersalivation or ptyalism)
  18. esophag/o
    esophagus
  19. -scope
    instrument for examining
  20. pharyng/o
    pharynx (throat)
  21. gastr/o
    stomach
  22. -scopy
    visual examination
  23. pylor/o
    pylorus

    (sphincter in lower portion of the stomach?)
  24. pain
    -algia, -dynia
  25. vomiting
    -emesis
  26. -megaly
    enlargement
  27. -orexia
    appetite
  28. -pepsia
    digestion
  29. hyper-
    excessive, above normal
  30. -phagia
    swallowing, eating
  31. dia-
    through, across
  32. duoden/o
    duodenum (first part of small intestine)
  33. enter/o
    intestine (usually small intestine)
  34. jejun/o
    jejunum (second part of small intestine)
  35. ile/o
    ileum (3rd part of small intestine)
  36. append/o

    appendic/o
    appendix
  37. -rrhaphy
    suture
  38. -ectomy
    excision, removal
  39. col/o

    colon/o
    colon
  40. proct/o
    anus, rectum
  41. rect/o
    rectum
  42. sigmoid/o
    sigmoid colon
  43. cholangi/o
    bile vessel
  44. chol/e
    bile, gall
  45. cholecyst/o
    gall bladder
  46. -lith
    stone, calculus
  47. hepat/o
    liver
  48. pancreat/o
    pancreas
  49. -lysis
    separation, destruction, loosening
  50. -iasis
    abnormal condition (produced by something specified)
  51. -osis
    abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells)
  52. -prandial
    meal
  53. what is the medical practice that encompasses diseases affecting the digestive tract?
    gastroenterology
  54. Pain in the mouth
    stomatodynia

    stomatalgia
  55. what are the 3 pairs of salivary glands?
    • sublingual, submandibular, parotid
    • (richly supplied with blood vessels and nerves)
  56. what is the primary function of salivary glands?
    secrete saliva into the oral cavity
  57. excessive secretion of saliva
    sialorrhea

    ptyalism

    hypersalivation
  58. maxill/o
    jaw
  59. myc/o
    fungus

    mycoses: plural form of mycosis
  60. toothache
    odontalgia and odontodynea
  61. periodontist
    treats abnormal conditions of tissues surrounding the teeth
  62. after food is chewed, what is the round and sticky mass is formed?
    bolus
  63. in the stomach, undigested food is mixed with gastric juices to break it down further into a liquid mass called what?
    chyme
  64. muc/o
    mucus
  65. what is an ulcer?
    • -lesion of skin or mucous membrane marked by inflammation, necrosis and sloughing of damaged skin
    • -caused by trauma, drugs, infectious agents, smoking and alcohol
  66. peptic ulcers
    • -open sores or legions on the mucous membrane that lines the stomach or duodenum
    • -usually develop in highly acidic regions of stomach or duodenum
  67. duodenal ulcer
    peptic ulcer in small intestine
  68. peptic ulcer in the stomach
    gastric ulcer
  69. EGD
    esophagogastroduodenoscopy

    (esophagus, stomach, duodenum)
  70. carcin/o
    cancer
  71. vomit blood
    hematemesis
  72. -cele
    hernia, swelling
  73. -rrhapy
    suture
  74. what happens in the small intestine?
    digestion of food is completed as nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream through VILLI (tiny finger-like projections)
  75. what are the 3 parts of the small intestine?
    • 1. duodenum
    • 2. jejunum
    • 3. ileum
  76. anastomosis
    connection between 2 vessels, bowel segments or ducts

    provides a connection from one structure to another
  77. another name for Chron disease
    • regional ileitis
    • regional enteritis

    (inflammation pattern, usually in ileum)
  78. 234 feces
  79. stenosis
    narrow, stricture

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