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Experience of clinically significant distress in social, occupational or other areas of functioning due the stop or reduction of substance use.
Experience of significant maladaptive behavioral and psychological symptoms due to the effect of a substance on the central nervous system.
Diagnosis given when substance use leads to harmful consequences.
What is substance as it pertains to substance abuse?
Any natural or synthesized product that has psychoactive effects.
5 group of depressants
1. Central nervous system depressants, including alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines and inhalants.
2.Central Nervous system stimulants including cocaine, amphetamines, nicotine and caffeine.
4.Hallucinogens and PCP
Substance dependence and tolerance?
maladaptive pattern of drug use leading to problems in personal life.Usually tolerance and withdrawal symptoms occur.
Tolerance: need for increased amounts
Withdrawal: same or closely related drug is need to relieve or avoid symptoms.
Constitutes binge drinking?
- 5 drinks or more for men
- 4 drinks or more for woman
What are delirium tremens (DTs?)
The third stage in alcohol withdrawl that includes auditory, visual and tactile hallucinations.
Can develop into delusions, monsters attacking.
Long term affects of alcohol?
Stomach, esophagus,pancreas and liver.
Low grade hypertension="bad cholesterol puts people at high risk of hear disease.
often malnourished because it decreases absorption of critical nutrients.
Affects of Central Nervous System depressants?
- Benzo and Barb:
- -Decrease in blood pressure
- -respiratory rate
- -heart rate.
- -Depress the central nervous system by producing chemical vapors
- -Nitrous oxide-dilates blood vessels, relaxes muscles and used as a sex enhancers.
- -Can cause respiratory irritations and rashes and permanent damage to the cognitive system by DEGENERATION AND LESIONS.
Affects of Central Nervous System stimulants?
Increase in heart rate, blood pressure and alter the rhythm and electrical activity.
Can lead to respiratory arrest, heart attack and seizures.
Affects of Opioids?
Suppress the respiratory and cardiovascular systems to the point of death.
Affects of Hallucinogens and PCP?
Severe anxiety and hallucinations to the point of psychosis.
Affects of Cannabis?
- -Short term memory
- -Cognitive impairments
- -Cudgement deficient slower reaction times
- -Anxiety episodes
What are synergy?
Synergy is the compounded effect results from using a drug combination.
The high effects of combining two drugs such as alcohol and barb.
The state that occurs when a drug that has been used for some time alters the users physiological functions in such ways that continued use is necessary.
Refers to the dependence on a drug because of strong desire to replicate the psychological state produced by the drug and/or to relieve oral needs, depression.
What are the different DEA?
I-High abuse potential, no accepted medical use
II- High abuse potential with severe physical and psychological dependence
III-Medium Abuse potential with low to mod physical dependence and high psychological dependence.
IV-Low abuse potential with limited physical and psychological dependence
V-Lowest abuse potential
HIGHEST IS I- involving LSD and Heroin.
Betty Ford Case? Treatment?, good prevention programs?
- -Admitting you have a problem
- -Motivation enhancement techniques(confrontation techniques)
- -Write down term agreements
- -Video tape model-to model actions
- -Self-help group
- -Family Therapy
- -Aversion Therapy
- -Relapse-prevention coping skills
Marc Lewis key points?
- Addition is the disease
- Addiction is a choice
- Prefronal Cortex/
- Ventral Striatum
- -responsible for attraction/desires.
(IVY)Craving is related to Feedback loop-you can focus on outside forces because of the growth of addiction.