APSYCH Unit 7a part 2

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tiffanycedeno
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APSYCH Unit 7a part 2
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2013-03-10 21:39:36
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  1. humanistic perspective
    • 1. focuses on person, person centered 
    • 2. striving to be good, revolves around person
  2. Maslow
    • 1. created hierarchy of needs 
    • 2. reaches self-actualization
  3. self-actualization
    • 1. basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieves 
    • 2. motivation to fulfill one's potential 
    • 3. some people don't attempt to reach this level
  4. Carl Rogers
    • 1. believed in freewill 
    • 2. personality is made up of choices 
    • 3. people are good and filled genuineness, acceptance and empathy
  5. unconditional positive regard
    • 1. total acceptance toward another person 
    • 2. develop deeper self-awareness and more realistic self-concept 
    • 3. unconditional love
  6. conditions of worth
    • 1. how others evaluate our worth (peers, family, teachers) 
    • 2. depend on evaluation of others
  7. incongruence
    • 1. dispenses between self-concept and actual thoughts 
    • 2. ideal self and real self
  8. criticisms of humanistic approach
    • 1. fails to appreciate reality of our human capacity for evil "naive" 
    • 2. concepts are vague/subjective 
    • 3. individualism promotes humanism (self-indulgence, selfishness, moral restrains)
  9. traits
    • 1. characteristic pattern of behavior assessed by inventories and peer reports
    • 2. stable
  10. Sheldon
    • 1. classified people by body type 
    • 2. endomorph (big, curvy, content)
    • 3. mesomorph (athletic in shape, kind, outgoing) 
    • 4. ectomorph (thin, tall, cold)
  11. Hans and Sybil Eysenck
    • 1. reduce many of our normal individual variations to two or three genetically influenced dimensions 
    • 2. factor analysis to correlate between traits 
    • 3. P.E.N. (psychoticism-caring; extroversion-outgoing;neurotism-emotionally stable)
  12. Raymond Cattell
    • 1. 16 personality factors into 2 types, source traits and surface traits 
    • 2. source traits: underlying traits that make up person 
    • 3. surface traits: traits seen individually, coming form sources traits
  13. Walter Mischel
    1. traits vary on circumstances
  14. Gordon Allport
    • 3 types of traits
    • 1. cardinal disposition: one trait that plays a vital role in everything a person does 
    • 2. central disposition: primary characteristics seen in person 
    • 3. secondary disposition: personality traits that are present but don't define someone
  15. MMPI-2
    • 1. most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests 
    • 2. identify emotional disorders
  16. Big Five
    • Openess - variety/routine 
    • Consciousness - organized and nonorganized 
    • Extraversion - outgoing, affectionate 
    • Agreeableness - softhearted/ruthless
    • Neurotism - emoitionally stability
  17. nomothetic vs. idiographic
    • nomothetic: basic traits are universal with everybody 
    • idiographic: traits unique to individual; degree t which we have "Big Five"
  18. social cognitive-perspective
    applies principal of learning, cognition, and social behavior personality
  19. Albert Bandura
    self-efficacy: person's belief about own ability it given situation increases;
  20. reciprocal determinism
    personality influence and our influence by interaction with enviroment
  21. locus of control (who?)
    • 1. Julian Rotter 
    • 2. perception that one control one own's fate
  22. external locus of control
    • perception that chance beyond one's personal control determines one's fate
    • ex: did bad on test, teacher hates you
  23. internal locus of control
    • the perception that one controls own's fate
    • ex: succeed in test, study
  24. learned helplessness
    hopelessness and unable to avoid repeated aversive events
  25. George Kelley
    personal construct theory: in order to undertand the world, people develop personal construct. ex: diff idea of love
  26. fundamental postiluate
    best way to predict someone's behavior in given situation, observe person's behavior pattern in similar situations
  27. western psychology
    mostly interested about studying "self"
  28. spotlight effect
    • others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders 
    • ex: tripping
  29. self-esteem
    • 1. one's feelings of high or low self-esteem
    • 2. high: pressures to conform, less likely to use drugs, persistent in diff. tasks
  30. self-serving bias
    a readiness to perceive oneself favorably
  31. self-understanding
    understanding one self
  32. individualism
    one's identity to terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications
  33. collectivists
    priority to the goals of one's group and defining one's identity accordingly

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