Genetics #2

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  1. Fertilized egg that develops into a new individual
  2. Unfertilized germ cells
  3. Male gamete
  4. Female gamete
  5. Organs where gametes are produced
  6. Male gonads that produce spermatozoa and male sex
  7. Female gonads that produce oocytes and female sex hormones
  8. The process of sperm production
  9. Small, tightly coiled tubes inside the testes where sperm are produced
    Seminiferous tubules
  10. Diploid cells that undergo meiosis to form haploid spermatids
  11. Where sperm are matured and stored
  12. A duct connected to the epididymis, which sperm travel through
    Vas deferens
  13. A short connector from vas deferens to urethra
    Ejaculatory duct
  14. Tube that passes from bladder to the outside
    Functions in urine transport and, in males, also carries sperm
  15. Glands that secrete fructose (energy source) and
    prostaglandins (chemical messengers) into the semen
    Seminal vesicles
  16. Locally acting chemical messengers that stimulate contraction of the female reproductive system to assist in sperm movement
  17. Secretes a milky, alkaline fluid that neutralizes acidic vaginal secretions and maintains sperm
    Prostate gland
  18. Glands that secrete a mucus-like substance that
    provides lubrication for intercourse
    Bulbourethral glands
  19. A mixture of sperm and various glandular secretions containing 5% spermatozoa
  20. In the ovary, a developing egg is surrounded by an outer layer of follicle cells
  21. Release of a secondary oocyte from the follicle
    Usually occurs monthly during a female’s reproductive lifetime
  22. The process of oocyte production
  23. Cells that produce primary oocytes by mitotic division
  24. The largest cell produced in the body. It is large enough to be seen with the naked eye
  25. • Also called the fallopian or uterine tube
    • A duct with fingerlike projections partially surrounding the ovary, connecting to the uterus
    • Guides oocytes from the ovary to the uterus • Location of fertilization
  26. Hollow, pear-shaped muscular organ where a
    fertilized egg will develop
  27. Inner lining of the uterus that is shed at menstruation if fertilization has not occurred
  28. Lower neck of the uterus opening into the vagina
  29. Opening that receives the penis during intercourse and also serves as the birth canal
  30. • Spermatogenesis begins during puberty
    • Millions of sperm are always in production
    • Spermatogenesis takes about 48 days
    • Meiotic division produces 4 sperm
  31. • Primary oocytes produced during embryonic
    development remain in meiosis I until ovulation
    • Ovulation begins during puberty
    • Meiotic division produces 1 oocyte and 2-3 polar bodies
  32. Fusion of two gametes to produce a zygote
  33. The developmental stage at which the embryo
    implants into the uterine wall
  34. A cluster of cells in the blastocyst that gives rise to the embryonic body
    Inner Cell mass
  35. The embryo implants in the uterine wall, and
    membranes develop to support the embryo
  36. Outer layer of cells in the blastocyst that gives rise to the membranes surrounding the embryo
  37. • Two-layered structure formed from trophoblast
    • Releases human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone which maintains uterine lining and stimulates endometrial cells to produce hormones
    • Grows and forms villi that exchange nutrients and wastes with maternal blood circulation, eventually forming the placenta
  38. • First month: basic tissue layers form; most of the body
    is divided into paired segments
    • Second month: most major organ systems are formed
    • Third month: embryo becomes a fetus; sexual development is initiated
    First Trimester
  39. • Increase in size and organ-system development • Bony parts of skeleton form • Heartbeat is heard with a stethoscope • Fetal movements begin
    Second Trimester
  40. • Rapid growth • Circulatory and respiratory systems mature
    • Birth is a hormonally induced process at the end of the 3rd trimester
    Third Trimester
  41. • Any physical or chemical agent that brings about an
    increase in congenital malformations • Radiation, viruses, medications, alcohol
  42. A constellation of birth defects caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy
    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
  43. the most common teratogenic problem and leading cause of preventable birth defects
  44. Sex of an individual is defined at three levels
    • • Chromosomal sex
    • • Gonadal sex
    • • Phenotypic sex
  45. • Sex-determining region of the Y chromosome
    • Located near the end of the short arm of the Y chromosome
    • Plays a major role in causing the undifferentiated gonad to develop into a testis
    SRY gene
  46. • Hormone produced by developing testis that causes breakdown of Müllerian (female) ducts in the embryo
    Müllerian inhibiting hormone (MIH)
  47. An X-linked genetic trait that causes XY individuals to develop into phenotypic females
    Androgen insensitivity (CAIS)
  48. • An autosomal genetic condition that causes XY
    individuals to develop the phenotype of females
    • Caused by mutations in several different genes
    • Affected individuals have both male and female structures, but at different times of life
    • At puberty, females change into males
  49. • Dosage compensation in mammalian females
    • Random inactivation of one X chromosome in females equalizes the activity of X-linked genes in males and females
    Lyon hypothesis (proposed by Mary Lyon)
  50. • A densely staining mass in the somatic nuclei of
    mammalian females • An inactivated X chromosome, tightly coiled
    Barr body
  51. Traits controlled by autosomal genes that are usually dominant in one sex but recessive in the other sex
    Sex-influenced traits

    Pattern baldness
  52. A phenomenon in which expression of a gene depends on whether it is inherited from the mother or the father
Card Set:
Genetics #2
2013-03-07 09:01:22

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