Animal structure and function

Card Set Information

Author:
yourmomhaslice
ID:
205600
Filename:
Animal structure and function
Updated:
2013-03-07 01:28:34
Tags:
exam2 bio lecture
Folders:

Description:
bio lec exam2
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user yourmomhaslice on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Anatomy:
    • physical
    • structures
  2. physical
    structures
    Anatomy
  3. Physiology
    •how physical structures function
  4. •how physical structures function
    Physiology
  5. Tissue
    • group of similar cells that
    • performs a common function
  6. •group of similar cells that
    performs a common function
    tissue
  7. •4 adult tissue types in humans (and pigs)
    –epithelial

    –nervous

    –muscle

    –connective
  8. –epithelial

    –nervous

    –muscle

    –connective
    •4 adult tissue types in humans (and pigs)
  9. Epithelial
    Tissue
    •Layer of closely packed cells

    •Function – protection, secretion,absorption

    •Lines outer or inner surfaces of body

    –outer example = skin

    –inner example = intestinal lining

    •Forms glands
  10. •Layer of closely packed cells•Function – protection, secretion,absorption•Lines outer or inner surfaces of body–outer example = skin–inner example = intestinal lining•Forms glands
    Epithelial tissue
  11. Apical
    side
    • organization in epithelial tissue
    • •faces away from other tissues and
    • toward the environment
  12. organization in epithelial tissue•faces away from other tissues andtoward the environment
    Apical Side
  13. Basolateral side
    organization in epithelial tissue


    • •faces the animal's interior and is
    • connected to other tissues
  14. organization in epithelial tissue•faces the animal's interior and isconnected to other tissues
    Basolateral side
  15. Nervous
    Tissue
    • •Cells = neurons
    • •Conduct electrical signals
    • Functions
    • –Sense stimuli
    • –Process stimuli
    • –Transmit signals
  16. •Cells = neurons•Conduct electrical signalsFunctions–Sense stimuli–Process stimuli–Transmit signals
    Nervous tissue
  17. Muscle
    Tissue
    • •Only tissue that is contractile (able to shorten)
    • •Cell type = muscle fibers
    • 3 types
    • –Skeletal
    • –Cardiac
    • –Smooth
  18. •Only tissue that is contractile (able to shorten)•Cell type = muscle fibers3 types–Skeletal–Cardiac–Smooth
    Muscle Tissue
  19. SKELETAL MUSCLE
    • •Attached to bone
    • •Produces all voluntary movements
    • •(striped) pattern
    • •Long thin multinucleated cells
  20. •Attached to bone•Produces all voluntary movements•(striped) pattern•Long thin multinucleated cells
    Skeletal muscle
  21. CARDIAC MUSCLE
    • •Only found in heart
    • •Involuntary contractions produce
    • heartbeat
    • •(striped) pattern
    • •Branched cells with single nuclei
  22. •Only found in heart•Involuntary contractions produceheartbeat•(striped) pattern•Branched cells with single nuclei
    CARDIAC MUSCLE
  23. SMOOTH MUSCLE
    • •Found in organs, blood vessels, and
    • digestive tract
    • •Involuntary contraction
    • •Not striated
    • •Cells spindle-shaped with single
    • nuclei
  24. •Found in organs, blood vessels, anddigestive tract•Involuntary contraction•Not striated•Cells spindle-shaped with singlenuclei
    Smooth Muscle
  25. Connective
    Tissue
    • •Cells embedded in a matrix
    • •Matrix: liquid, jellylike, or solid extracellular substance

    • •6 types
    • –loose connective
    • –fibrous connective
    • –bone
    • –cartilage
    • –blood
    • –adipose
  26. •6 types–loose connective–fibrous connective–bone–cartilage–blood–adipose
    Connective tissue
  27. LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE
    • •Cells = fibroblasts
    • •Matrix = collagen and elastin fibers
    • •Fibers are NOT tightly packed
    • •Binds epithelia to other tissues
    • •Holds organs in place and provides
    • padding
  28. •Cells = fibroblasts•Matrix = collagen and elastin fibers•Fibers are NOT tightly packed•Binds epithelia to other tissues•Holds organs in place and providespadding
    Loose connective tissue
  29. FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE
    • •Cells = fibroblasts
    • •Matrix = collagen fibers running in parallel
    • •Forms tendons (muscle to bone
    • connection) and ligaments (bone to bone connection)
  30. •Cells = fibroblasts•Matrix = collagen fibers running in parallel•Forms tendons (muscle to boneconnection) and ligaments (bone to bone connection)
    FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE
  31. BONE
    • •Cells = osteocytes
    • •Matrix = collagen fibers and calcium salts
    • •Rigid connective tissue
  32. •Cells = osteocytes•Matrix = collagen fibers and calcium salts•Rigid connective tissue
    Bone
  33. CARTILAGE
    • •Cells = chondrocytes
    • •Matrix = collagen
    • and elastin fibers
    • •Cushions joints
    • •Forms structure of ears and nose
  34. •Cells = chondrocytes•Matrix = collagenand elastin fibers•Cushions joints•Forms structure of ears and nose
    CARTILAGE
  35. BLOOD
    • •Cells = red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets
    • •Matrix = plasma
    • •Carries oxygen and nutrients
    • •Fights infection
  36. •Cells = red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets•Matrix = plasma•Carries oxygen and nutrients•Fights infection
    Blood
  37. ADIPOSE
    • Small amount of matrix (collagen fibers)
    • •Connects skin to underlying structures
    • •Pads organs
    • •Stores energy
  38. Small amount of matrix (collagen fibers)•Connects skin to underlying structures•Pads organs•Stores energy
    adipose
  39. Organ
    • •Structure with specialized function
    • made of 2 or more tissues
    • •Example: small intestine
  40. •Structure with specialized functionmade of 2 or more tissues•Example: small intestine
    Organ
  41. ORGAN
    System
    • •Group of tissues and organs that
    • work together to perform a specific function
    • •Example: digestive system
  42. •Group of tissues and organs thatwork together to perform a specific function•Example: digestive system
    ORGAN System
  43. Homeostasis
    • method that maintains proper chemical
    • and physical conditions
  44. method that maintains proper chemicaland physical conditions
    Homeostasis
  45. Homeostasis
    TYPES
    Conformational homeostasis

    Regulatory homeostasis:
  46. Conformational homeostasisRegulatory homeostasis:
    Homeostasis TYPES
  47. FEEDBACK REGULATION
    • •Common
    • method to maintain homeostasis
    • temp thing
  48. •Commonmethod to maintain homeostasistemp thing
    FEEDBACK REGULATION
  49. Body size
    Most animals are large and multicellular


    • •Single cells or small multicellular
    • organisms

    • –Nutrients
    • and wastes transported across plasma membranes
  50. SOLUTION TO LARGE BODY PROBLEM
    •Increase surface area

    • •Tissues with flat, folded, or branched structures.
    • Tennis court lungs, n shit

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview