Pharm Test 2

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ashley9er
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205614
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Pharm Test 2
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2013-03-07 02:27:05
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pharmacology test
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test 2 key terms
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  1. Antacids
    Basic compounds composed of different combinations of acid-neutralizing ionic salts
  2. Chief cells
    Cells in the stomach that secrete the gastric enzyme pepsinogen (a precursor to pepsin).
  3. Gastric glands
    Secretory glands in the stomach containing the following cell types: parietal, chief, mucous, endocrine, and enterochromaffin
  4. Gastric hyperacidity
    The overproduction of stomach acid
  5. Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
    An acid secreted by the parietal cells in the lining of the stomach that maintains the environment of the stomach at a pH of 1 to 4.
  6. Mucous cells
    Cells whose function in the stomach is to secrete mucus that serves as a protective mucous coat against the digestive properties of HCl. Also called surface epithelial cells
  7. Parietal cells
    Cells in the stomach that produce and secrete HCl. These cells are the primary site of action for many of the drugs used to treat acid-related disorders.
  8. Pepsin
    An enzyme in the stomach that breaks down proteins
  9. Adrenergic agonists
    Drugs that stimulate and mimic the actions of the sympathetic nervous system. Also called sympathomimetics
  10. Adrenergic receptors
    Receptor sites for the sympathetic neurotransmitters norepinephrine and epinephrine
  11. Alpha-adrenergic receptors
    A class of adrenergic receptors that are further subdivided into alpha1- and alpha2-adrenergic receptors, and are differentiated by their anatomic location in the tissues, muscles, and organs regulated by specific autonomic nerve fibers
  12. Autonomic functions
    Bodily functions that are involuntary and result from the physiologic activity of the autonomic nervous system. The functions often occur in pairs of opposing actions between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system
  13. Autonomic nervous system
    A branch of the peripheral nervous system that controls autonomic bodily functions. It consists of the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system
  14. Beta-adrenergic receptors
    Receptors located on postsynaptic effector cells of tissues, muscles, and organs stimulated by specific autonomic nerve fibers. Beta1-adrenergic receptors are located primarily in the heart, whereas Beta2-adrenergic receptors are located in the smooth muscle fibers of the bronchioles, arterioles, and visceral organs
  15. Catecholamines
    Substances that can produce a sympathomimetic response. They are either endogenous catecholamines (such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine) or synthetic catecholamine drugs (such as dobutamine).
  16. Dopaminergic receptor
    A third type of adrenergic receptor (in addition to alpha-adrenergic and beta-adrenergic receptors) located in various tissues and organs and activated by the binding of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which can be either endogenous or a synthetic drug form
  17. Mydriasis
    Pupillary dilation, whether natural (physiologic) or drug induced
  18. Ophthalmics
    Drugs that are used in the eye
  19. Positive chronotropic effect
    An increase in heart rate
  20. Positive dromotropic effect
    An increase in the conduction of cardiac electrical impulses through the atrioventricular node, which results in the transfer of nerve action potentials from the atria to the ventricles. This ultimately leads to a systolic heartbeat (ventricular contractions).
  21. Positive inotropic effect
    An increase in the force of contraction of the heart muscle (myocardium).
  22. Sympathomimetics
    Drugs used therapeutically that mimic the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Also called adrenergic agonists
  23. Synaptic cleft
    The space either between two adjacent nerve cell membranes or between a nerve cell membrane and an effector organ cell membrane (also called synapse).
  24. Agonists
    Drugs with a specific receptor affinity that mimic the body's natural chemicals (e.g., hormones, neurotransmitters).
  25. Angina
    Paroxysmal (sudden) chest pain caused by myocardial ischemia
  26. Antagonists
    Drugs that bind to specific receptors and inhibit or block the response of the receptors
  27. Dysrhythmias
    Irregular heart rhythms; almost always called arrhythmias in clinical practice.
  28. Extravasation
    The leaking of fluid from a blood vessel into the surrounding tissues, as in the case of an infiltrated intravenous infusion
  29. Intrinsic sympathomimetic activity
    The paradoxical action of some beta-blocking drugs (e.g., acebutolol) that mimics the action of the sympathetic nervous system.
  30. Lipophilicity
    The chemical attraction of a substance (e.g., drug molecule) to lipid or fat molecules.
  31. Pheochromocytoma
    A vascular adrenal gland tumor that is usually benign but secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine and thus often causes central nervous system stimulation and substantial blood pressure elevation
  32. Sympatholytics
    Drugs that inhibit the postganglionic functioning of the sympathetic nervous system
  33. Acetylcholine
    The neurotransmitter responsible for transmission of nerve impulses to effector cells in the parasympathetic nervous system.
  34. Acetylcholinesterase
    The enzyme responsible for the breakdown of acetylcholine (also referred to simply as cholinesterase).
  35. Alzheimer's disease
    A disease of the brain that is characterized by progressive mental deterioration manifested by confusion, disorientation, and loss of memory, ability to calculate, and visual-spatial orientation.
  36. Cholinergic receptor
    A nerve receptors that is stimulated by acetylcholine.
  37. Miosis
    The contraction of the pupil
  38. Muscarinic receptors
    Cholinergic receptors that are located postsynaptically in the effector organs such as smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands supplied by parasympathetic fibers.
  39. Nicotinic receptors
    Cholinergic receptors located in the ganglia (where presynaptic and postsynaptic nerve fibers meet) of both the parasympathetic nervous system and the sympathetic nervous system; so named because they can be stimulated by the alkaloid nicotine
  40. Parasympathomimetics
    Drugs that mimic the parasympathetic nervous system; also referred to as cholinergic agonist drugs.
  41. Cholinergic-blocking drugs
    Drugs that block the action of acetylcholine and substances similar to acetylcholine at receptor sites in the synapse. Such drugs block the action of the cholinergic nerves that transmit impulses through the release of acetylcholine at their synapse.
  42. Mydriasis
    Drugs that reduce the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system; also called anticholinergics
  43. Diabetes mellitus
    A complex disorder of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism resulting primarily from the lack of insulin secretion by the beta cells of the pancreas or from defects of the insulin receptors; it is commonly referred to simply as diabetes. There are two major types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2.
  44. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
    A severe metabolic complication of uncontrolled diabetes that, if untreated, leads to diabetic coma and death.
  45. Gestational diabetes
    Diabetes that develops during pregnancy. It may resolve after pregnancy but may also be a precursor of type 2 diabetes in later life.
  46. Glucagon
    A hormone produced by the alpha cells in the islets of Langerhans that stimulates the conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver
  47. Glucose
    One of the simple sugars that serves as a major source of energy. It is found in foods (e.g., fruits, refined sweets) and also is the final breakdown product of complex carbohydrate metabolism in the body; it is also commonly referred to as dextrose
  48. Glycogen
    A polysaccharide that is the major carbohydrate stored in animal cells
  49. Glycogenolysis
    The breakdown of glycogen to glucose
  50. Hemoglobin A1C (A1C)
    Hemoglobin molecules to which glucose molecules are bound; blood levels of hemoglobin A1C are used as a diagnostic measure of average daily blood glucose levels in the monitoring of diabetes; it is also called glycosylated hemoglobin or glycated hemoglobin
  51. Hyperglycemia
    A fasting blood glucose level of 126 mg/dL or higher or a nonfasting blood glucose level of 200 mg/dL or higher.
  52. Hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HNKS)
    A metabolic complication of uncontrolled diabetes, similar in severity to diabetic ketoacidosis but without ketosis and acidosis.
  53. Hypoglycemia
    A blood glucose level of less that 50 mg/dL.
  54. Impaired fasting glucose level
    A fasting glucose level of at least 110 mg/dL but lower than 126 mg/dL; it defines a prediabetic state that is sometimes called prediabetes.
  55. Insulin
    A naturally occurring hormone secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas in response to increased levels of glucose in the blood.
  56. Ketones
    Organic chemical compounds produced through the oxidation of secondary alcohols (e.g., fat molecules), including dietary carbohydrates.
  57. Polydipsia
    Chronic excessive intake of water; it is a common symptom of diabetes.
  58. Polyphagia
    Excessive eating; it is a common symptom of diabetes
  59. Polyuria
    Increased frequency or volume of urinary output; it is a common symptom of diabetes
  60. Type 1 diabetes mellitus
    Diabetes mellitus that is a genetically determined autoimmune disorder characterized by a complete or nearly complete lack of insulin production; it most commonly arises in children or adolescents
  61. Type 2 diabetes mellitus
    A type of diabetes mellitus that most commonly presents in adults. The disease may be controlled by lifestyle modifications, oral drug therapy, and/or insulin, but patients are not necessarily dependent on insulin.

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