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A person who experiences depressed mood and two other symptoms of depression for at least a 2-year period during which time the depressive symptoms do not remit for more than 2 months would be diagnosed as having:
A subtype of depression in which the physiological symptoms of depression are particularly prominent is referred to as:
depression with melancholic features.
Which of the following is characterized by severe depression and hypomania?
bipolar II disorder
Less common than Unipolar Depression
Which of the following is false in regards to the role that genetics play in mood disorders?
Family history studies have found that the first-degree relatives of people with unipolar depression are more likely to have either bipolar or unipolar depression.
The part of the neuroendocrine system found to be hyperactive in people with depression is the:
The idea that life stress leads to depression by causing a reduction in positive reinforcers is known as
Lewinsohn and Gotlib's behavioral theory.
Which of the following statements is true with regard to cognitive theories of mood disorders?
An internal-stable-global attributional style for negative events puts people at risk for depression.
Physicians often do not prescribe _________ to treat patients who might be suicidal because an overdose would be fatal. Physicians must prescribe _________ very carefully because of their propensity to interact with a large number of everyday products such as cheese, red wine, or beer.
Which type of therapy for depression looks at four types of problems — loss of loved one, interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, and deficits in interpersonal skills?
Strategies to reduce the relapse rates of mood disorders include all of the following except:
regular PET scans to assess brain functioning.
Which of the following statements is false in regards to suicide?
The rates of suicide are overestimated.
The most likely method that a woman would use to commit suicide would be to:
Which of the following statements is true in regards to the differences among ethnic/racial groups in the rates of suicide?
European Americans have higher suicide rates than all other groups in the United States.
The single best predictor of future suicidal thoughts and actions is:
a previous history of suicidal thoughts and actions.
Suicide committed by people who experience severe disorientation because of a large change in their relationships with society is known as:
The phenomenon of clusters of suicide occurring non-randomly in space or time is referred to as:
One problem with Freud's theory of suicide is that:
it is difficult to test and therefore hard to evaluate.
The most common disorder among people who commit suicide is:
a mood disorder.
The cognitive variable that has most consistently predicted suicide is:
Evidence that suicide runs in families:
has been gathered through twin and adoption studies.
The medication(s) most consistently shown to reduce risk of suicide is/are:
Dialectical behavior therapy:
addresses individuals' difficulties in managing negative emotions.
Studies of the effects of broadly based suicide prevention/education programs have suggested that:
they are not very helpful and might do harm.
Suicide committed by people who feel that they are lacking in social contacts, alienated from other people, and alone in an unsupportive world is known as:
the inability to find pleasure in enjoyable activities. hobbies,activities,sex.
Sub-types of Major depression?
- melancholic-inabilitiy to experience pleasure.
- Psychotic-Presence of depressing delusions
- Catatonic-excessive motor acti.disturb speech
- Atypical-positive mood reactions
- Postpartum-major depressive episode baby
- Seasonal Patter-atleast 2 years history.
Prevalence of major depression across lifespan in US?
at least 16% will experience major depression
Occur in ages 18-29 and decline especially at 60.
85 increases- more due to the onset of cognitive disorder then just a depressive disorder.
Rapid Cycling in Bipolar disorder?
Four or more cycles of mania and depression within 1 year.
Neurotransmitters are most implicated in the development and maintenance of bipolar and major depression?
Low Serotonin and disregulation of dopamine
What disorders are most often comorbid with different mood disorders?
- anxiety, substance abuse, conducts disorders, gambling problems.
- Homicide, paranoia.
- Bipolar II:
- Comorbidity: substance abuse or dependence,
- anxiety disorders and personality disorders
- Cyclothymia:Comorbidity: panic disorder with
- agoraphobia, OCD, alcohol abuse, bulimia nervosa, as well as borderline and
- dependent personality disorders.
Treatments for Mood Disorders?
- Major depression. Dysthymia:
- Psychotherapy: CBT best established
- -Increased physical activity
- -Increase effective socialization
- -Increase pleasurable activities
- -Keep mood diary, ID thoughts, distortions etc.
- -Tricyclics and MAOIs
- -MAOI-Really easy to kill yourself on
- -Very important to assess family history of
- bipolar disorder before prescribing SSRIs
- -SSRIs (e.g Fluoxetine) moderately effective but
- some risks.
- -SNRIs (e.g
- Duloxetine Cymbalta) moderately effective with fewer side effects
- Bipolar Disorder/Bipolar II/ Cyclothymia:
- -Mood Stabilizers (Lithium)
- -Anticonvulsants (e.g Depakote, Tegretol,
- -Atypical antipyschotics (e.g Resperdal, Zyprexa,
- Seroquel, Abilify)
- -Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy
- -Tracking and maintaining regularity of sleep exercise
- and eating schedules; develop coping strategies to decrease stress and
- emotional reactivity.
Differences between egoistic, anomic and altruistic suicide?
Egoisitic-feel alienated by others.
Anomic-Experience severe deterioation because of a major change in their relationship to society.
Altruistic-Believe that taking their life will benefit society.