Psyc 311 test 2

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  1. Physical growth spurts of Girl
    • 2 years earlier than boys*
    • onset = 9y/o
    • apex = 11.5 y/o
    • height = 3.5" per year
    • weight = avg 8 lbs in one year
    • body = hips widen, facial structure bc rounder and softer
    • GROWTH SPURT = about 7" for girls in the two year period
  2. physical growth spurt for boys
    • onset = 11 y/o
    • apex = 13.5 y/o
    • height = 4" per year
    • weight = 18 ibs per year
    • body = incrase in shoulder width and face become more angular and adult like
    • by age 14 surpasses girls in weight
  3. body image for girls
    gen. mixed blessing
  4. body image for boys
    become more satisfied with their body
  5. puberty
    a period of rapid physical maturation of horemones and bodily changes during adol.
  6. genotype
    a person genetic heritage
  7. phenotype
    • the observable measueable charactersitic of an individual
    • heigh weight, iq ect
  8. for every genotype there is
    • a range of phenotypes
    • a certain gen. does not guarinty a specific phenotype
  9. four factors that effect the growth curves
    • target seeking
    • maturity gradient
    • feedback regulation
    • body mass
  10. target seeking
    • seeks to follow gentic blue print when neg. enoviromenatl influences have been fromved
    • ex: geno = shy
    • so join clubs and teams
    • pheno = outgoing
  11. maturity gradient
    • head more devloped adva. than body more adv. and lings ect
    • why paby are unprotionate
    • aka 1 part more developed than other
  12. feedback regulation
    • monitoring systems that controlls hormone levels during
    • internal
    • reg. how many homrenos effect you on the out side
    • life a valve on a water faucet
  13. body mass
    • child must reachh a critical body mass before puberty occures
    • 106 lb +/- 3 lbs
    • 17% body fat
  14. menarche
    girls first menstration
  15. secular trens in puberty
    • means patterns on change seen over time
    • ex. menarche now occurs at about 12.5 y/o in stead of 14 y/o over a centry ago
  16. body image for girls
    • generlally mixed blessing
    • less happy than boys
    • happy they look older
    • unhappy about gaining weight
  17. body image for boys
    • more stisifies with body
    • bc increase of muscles mass
  18. horomons in males
    • higher leves of androgens
    • ass. with violence and acting out probs
    • social factors are also important
  19. hormones and behavior for girls
    • higher levels of estrogen do result in aggression toward peers and adults
    • lower or midale does do lead to aggresion
    • social is also important
  20. berkely stuy
    • early m. boys= happy with themselfs not so much late m boys
    • ¬†3o yers latter thoe the
    • Late m boys had a stonger sence of identity and EM but the LM would still rather be an EM
  21. Milwaukee study
    • EM girsl are more probles, more independent
    • more behavior probs, date and have sex younger
    • 6th grad EM=Hapopy LM= sad
    • 10 grade EM=unhappy LM= happy
  22. risk taking
    • due to being impulse and influence
    • prefrontal cortex is not fully developed
    • Amyugdal is very active
    • 2 reduce need to replace risky behavior with something postiv and fun
  23. prefrontal cortex
    • involves reasoning
    • descion making
    • self controll
  24. amygdala
    structre of brain that involves emotion
  25. leading causes of death in adol
    • 75% accient (50% of that auto)
    • 2nd highest = homocided 3x more in black males most like killed by gun
    • 3rd higest sucided since 50's suicide rate has trippled
    • emerging adults have twice the mortality rate of adol.
    • early 20 while males highest sucide risk
  26. sports postives
    • less likely to engage in risky behavior
    • more postive peers
    • hig cnnectiness into school
  27. sports neg.
    • perrure to win
    • anciety
    • self centerdness
    • use of steroids
    • may suffer academically
  28. sleep
    • adol do not get enough
    • 45% " " "
    • gets sleepy and hour latter than they use too to hormone melatonin
  29. kinship studeis
    reseach on the influence of heredity and enviromental of id. diff inhuman traits and developlment
  30. identical twins
    • manozygotic
    • single egg
    • exact geno
    • extroverted psych disorders
  31. fraternal  twins
    • dizogtic
    • sperate eggs
    • no more alike than other sibblings
  32. 3 types of genotype
    • passice
    • ecocative
    • active
  33. passive
    • bio parents provide and enviorment that supports their own genetic presispositon
    • young kids
  34. evocative
    • the persons genetic predispostion evokes certain types of enviorment responeses
    • kids do something to evoke a respnce from other ppl
  35. active
    • kids seeks out enfroment they find compatible
    • kids picks things they like now
  36. shared enviromental experinces
    • both experince
    • siblins common
    • family socio
    • neighborhood
    • econmic staus
    • parnets personalities
  37. non shared enviromental experiences
    • both in side and outside family
    • diffrent freinds, or teachers ect.
  38. schhemas
    • is the way to make sence of information by organising it
    • example = file card system
  39. 2 types of adapation are
    • assimiltion
    • and accommondation
  40. assimilation
    • the process of incorporation new info into existing knowlage
    • quanatative
  41. accommodation
    • adding information that forces a person to adjust their thinking
    • qualitative
  42. four stages of piaget
    • 1) sensorimotor
    • 2)preopperational
    • 3)concrete operational
    • 4)formal operational
  43. stage 1 sensorimotor
    birth to 2 y/o learn through sences
  44. stage 2 preoperational
    • 2 y/o to 7 y/o
    • language development
    • egocentric
    • inablity to convserve
    • does not see the world form others ppls pnt of view
  45. stage 3 concrete operational
    • 7-11 y/o
    • begining of logical reasoning skills bases on concrete observations
    • capable of conservation tasking
    • not good with hypothetical problems
  46. stage 4 formal operational
    • 11-15 latter 11-20
    • things is abstract idealisting hypothical
    • dived into early and late formal operations thought
  47. early formal operational thought
    submerge reality when dealing wit idealistic thinking assimlation is dominant process
  48. late formal operational thougt
    test resoning against experince accommodation is dominant process
  49. adol. and adults both think ....
    ualitatively the same but adults are quanitatively more advance in knowledge
  50. dualistic thinking
    this or that, right or wrong kind of thinking
  51. multiple thinking
    • being able to see multiple circumstances
    • occurs with age
    • (in my oppion, i could be wrong but i think)
  52. william perry
    person who thougt of dualisic thinking and multiple thinking
  53. Vygotsky
    • cognitive socialization
    • adol. are impacted by the congnitive enviorment
  54. ZPD
    • zone of proximal development
    • the concept says some task are to diff. alone but can be maseted wit guidance and assistance of skilled indvi.
  55. lower level zone of zpd
    adol is problem solving along
  56. higher level of zpd
    what the adol. can do with help froma skilled indv.
  57. attention
    • concentration and focus of mental effort
    • 2 types selective and shiftable
  58. selective attention
    focusin on stimuli and ingore the other
  59. shiftable attention / divied attention
    shift the foucs form one stimuls to another
  60. memory
    • the retention of info over time
    • 3 types
    • short term, working memory, and long term
  61. short term memory
    • limited in capacity of ino and lenght of time
    • no longer than 30 sec.
  62. working memory
    • stratiges to rember infor
    • have not learned and with forget at some point just memorized
    • the in bw phase of getting infor from short term to long term
  63. long term memory
    realavely permanent and store huge amount of info.
  64. decison making
    • gets better with age
    • making compared wot childer by explore options, examine situation form diff. perspetives, anticipate the consequences , consider credibility
  65. strategies to improve adol decision making
    • engage in role play
    • group problem soving
    • family decision making
  66. reasoning
    logical thinking that uses induction and decustion to reach a conclusion
  67. inductive reasoning
    reasoning from specific to general

    ex. sample eniter pop to draw conclusion about entier pop.
  68. deductive reasoning
    reasoning from gen. to specific
  69. creative thinking
    abilty to think in novel ways
  70. convergent thinking
    one right answer
  71. divergent thinking
    many possible answers
  72. intelligence view
    • intelligence can not be directly measured however can evaluated indirectly
    • 1) threw verbal and proble solving ablitys
    • 2)ability to adapt and learn form life
    • 3) combination of the two
  73. Binet
    • developed the CONCEPT OF MENTAL AGE=
    • and ind. level of mental development realtive to other the same age
    • on avg a child would have a mental age tat is equivalent to his/hers chronclogical age
  74. Willeam stern
    coint the intelligent quotient or IQ

    q=( MA divided by CA ) x 100

    68%  of people score in avg.
  75. normal distribuation curve
    appromatley 68% score in this with one deviation of avg
  76. problems with piaget
    • one 1/3 of 8t graders scored at formal opp levels baised on piagets test
    • some universties socred less and 17% student were formal opperatonal the highest was 67%
Card Set:
Psyc 311 test 2
2013-03-14 19:09:35

flash cards for MSU psyc 311 second test
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