Food Comm- Poultry and Eggs

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Morgan.liberatore
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205667
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Food Comm- Poultry and Eggs
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2013-03-10 18:26:13
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Food Comm Poultry Eggs
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Food Comm- Poultry and Eggs
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  1. what is the cost of poultry compared to other meats?
    relatively inexpensive source of protein compared to other muscle foods
  2. why is poultry less of a dietary problem?
    religious reasons, space requirements for cultivation, rapid growth, amount and nature of fat (relative to beef and pork)
  3. what are chicken broilers/fryers?
    • first group of chickens at ~6-8 weeks
    • meat is tender with softer bones and cartilage
  4. what are turkey broilers/fryers?
    • first group of turkeys at ~10-12 weeks
    • meat is tender with softer bones and cartilage
  5. what is the second group of chickens and turkeys?
    • roasters
    • chicken=8-12 weeks old
    • turkey=16-24 weeks old
  6. what is a spent chicken or turkey?
    • ≥52 weeks
    • considered not productive because they no longer produce eggs
    • meat tends to be tough and dry
  7. why is the meat of spent chickens/turkeys tough and dry?
    extent of collagen cross-linkage formation increases as the animal ages
  8. is the per capita consumption of poultry in North America increasing or decreasing?
    it is growing steadily
  9. what is the percentage of meat, bone, and skin on a chicken?
    • 52% meat
    • 34% bone
    • 14% skin
  10. what is the percentage of meat, bone, and skin on a turkey?
    • 67% meat
    • 21% bone
    • 12% skin
  11. which species has the highest %meat for its size?
    pheasant and quail both have 76%
  12. which species has the lowest %meat for its size?
    duck, at only 34%
  13. what is different about poultry meat when it is produced with skin on?
    tends to have a higher fat content and lower moisture/protein content
  14. what can be inferred about the skin of poultry based on what happens to the meat if cooked skin on?
    it is much higher in fat than the rest of the animal
  15. why is some meat dark and some meat light?
    meat that is dark has a higher relative amount of myoglobin present
  16. where are the white muscles found on a bird?
    those parts used for intense and rapid activity, such as the wings and the chest muscles that control wing movements
  17. where are the dark muscles found on a bird?
    used for less vigorous activities and tire less readily than the white muscle
  18. what is the relative fat content of dark meat?
    associated with a higher fat content and is the part with the relatively higher content of triglycerides and cholesterol
  19. how is poultry as a source of protein?
    rich source of the essential amino acids, irrespective of the source (meaning which type of bird it comes from)
  20. how does the meat of chickens and turkeys compare to duck and goose, fat-wise?
    chicken and turkey are relatively low in fat compared to duck and goose
  21. which types of fats are duck and goose higher in compared to chicken and turkey?
    higher levels of MUFAs, while chickens and turkeys have higher levels of PUFAs
  22. which is the most common MUFA in poultry?
    oleic acid
  23. which is the most common PUFA in poultry?
    linoleic acid
  24. what is the result of the higher PUFA content of chicken and turkey?
    they are more prone to oxidative damage than ducks and geese
  25. which factors does the composition of meat from poultry depend on?
    • age of the animal
    • species
    • diet
    • environment and level of activity
    • sex, etc.
  26. how does the level of moisture in white and dark meat compare in chicken with skin?
    light tends to be higher in moisture
  27. how does the level of moisture in white and dark meat compare in turkey with skin?
    dark tends to be higher in moisture
  28. how does the level of protein in white and dark meat compare in chicken and turkey with skin?
    light tends to be higher in protein
  29. how does the level of fat in white and dark meat compare in chicken and turkey with skin?
    dark tends to be higher in fat
  30. how does the level of ash in white and dark meat compare in chicken and turkey with skin?
    light tends to be higher in ash
  31. how does the level of energy (kcal/100g) in white and dark meat compare in chicken with skin?
    dark is significantly higher in energy (kcal/100g)
  32. how does the level of energy (kcal/100g) in white and dark meat compare in turkey with skin?
    dark is slightly higher, but they are almost identical
  33. how does the level of moisture in white and dark meat compare in chicken and turkey without skin?
    dark meat tends to be higher in moisture
  34. how does the level of protein in white and dark meat compare in chicken and turkey without skin?
    white tends to be higher in protein
  35. how does the level of fat in white and dark meat compare in chicken and turkey without skin?
    dark tends to be higher in fat
  36. how does the level of ash in white and dark meat compare in chicken and turkey without skin?
    light is slightly higher in ash
  37. how does the level of energy (kcal/100g) in white and dark meat compare in chicken and turkey without skin?
    dark tends to be higher in energy (125kcal/100g in dark meat, vs. 114-125kcal/100g in light meat for both)
  38. duck and goose cooked with skin are much higher in which 2 factors?
    fat is much higher, and energy is much higher
  39. what is MDPM or MSPM?
    mechanically deboned poultry meat, or mechanically separated poultry meat
  40. how is the meat taken off the bones in MDPM?
    • first, boneless flesh is cut off the bones for consumer use
    • then, the meat still left on bones may be removed by high pressure treatments where the meat is held in a perforated tank (which is spun) in water and subjected to high pressure
    • the meat separates from the bones and passes out of the tank via the perforations, while the bones are left behind in the tanks
  41. what can the MDPM separated by the tank be used for?
    • nuggets
    • sausage
    • hot dogs
    • bullion
    • soups
  42. how large are the holes of the barrel sieve in MDPM?
    around 0.5-0.8 mm in diameter
  43. which minerals is MDPM highest in?
    potassium > calcium > sodium > chloride > magnesium > iron > copper/zinc
  44. in addition to the high levels of minerals found in poultry, which vitamins are found?
    niacin, folate, vitamin C, and vitamin A are present
  45. what are the 3 main categories of processed meats?
    • minimally altered (bacon, corned beef)
    • moderately altered, which is sectioned and then restructured (cooked ham)
    • extensively altered, which is comminuted (reduced to minimal particles) and then formed (sausage, frankfurters, many luncheon meats)
  46. what is WHC?
    water holding capacity
  47. what are the main reasons salt is added to processed meats?
    • increases WHC
    • extracts salt-soluble proteins
  48. what are the main reasons alkaline phosphates are added to processed meats?
    • increases WHC
    • reduces oxidation
    • preserves color
  49. what is the main reason acidic phosphates are added to processed meats?
    increases shelf life by decreasing bacterial growth
  50. what is the main reason transglutaminase is added to processed meats?
    increases binding ability
  51. what is the main reason bovine blood plasma proteins are added to processed meats?
    increases binding ability
  52. what is the main reason alginates are added to processed meats?
    binding agents (no salt or phosphates required)
  53. what are the main reasons soy proteins/concentrates are added to processed meats?
    • binders
    • increase WHC
    • reduce costs
  54. what are the main reasons whey and caseinate are added to processed meats?
    • binders
    • improve texture and WHC
  55. what are the main reasons starch and other hydrocolloids are added to processed meats?
    • increase WHC
    • firm texture
    • increase product stability during freezing and thawing
  56. what are the main reasons spices are added to processed meats?
    improve flavor, color, and aroma
  57. what are the main reasons sodium acetate or diacetate are added to processed meats?
    • flavoring agent
    • acidulant
    • antimicrobial
  58. what are the main reasons sodium or potassium lactactes are added to processed meats?
    • extend shelf life
    • enhance salt flavor
    • increase WHC
  59. what is the curing of meats?
    treatment of fresh meat with salt and nitrites or nitrates for the purpose of preservation and obtaining desirable color and flavor
  60. how do nitrites/nitrates impact color?
    • they form nitrous acid (HNO2) in water
    • in the presence of reducing agents (such as erythorbate), the nitrous acid is broken down to form nitric oxide, NO.
    • the NO formed can replace oxygen in MbO2 to form nitrosomyoglobin (MbNO), which has a pinkish color
  61. how does the pinkish color of meat turn brownish?
    denaturation of the globin protein, or oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+ makes nitrosohemichrome (which is brownish)
  62. what is erythorbate or Na-eythorbate an isomer of?
    ascorbate
  63. besides reducing nitrous acid, what other desirable properties does Na-erythorbate have in cured meats?
    • it is an antioxidant
    • can stabilize both color and flavor
    • can minimize the formation of nitrosamines
  64. why would we want to minimize nitrosamine formation?
    they are carcinogenic
  65. how do nitrosamines form?
    under acidic conditions (such as in the human stomach) when there are nitrites and secondary amines from proteins present
  66. how many eggs does the average hen lay per year?
    about 225 eggs
  67. what makes eggs highly nutritious?
    • rich in high quality proteins, with all 9 essential amino acids
    • rich in essential oils
    • rich in all vitamins (except vitamin C), especially rich in vitamins A and D
    • has important minerals (iron, phosphorous)
  68. what is the highest component of eggs?
    moisture
  69. what food products are eggs important for?
    • emulsions
    • baked goods
    • desserts
    • beverages
    • soups
    • food paint
  70. what are the carotenoids found in eggs good for?
    good for vision (protect against cataracts and macular degeneration)
  71. what is choline in eggs good for?
    high levels help to regulate CNS and cardiovascular function via the molecule acetylcholine esterase
  72. what do eggs help the formation of?
    healthy nails and hair
  73. what are some non-food uses of eggs?
    • decoration
    • cosmetic products
    • pharmacological uses
    • glue
    • leather cleaner
    • compost
    • pest control in the garden
  74. what is 98.4% of the egg shell made of?
    CaCO3
  75. what is 0.8% of the egg shell made of?
    both MgCO3 and Ca3(PO4)2 make up an individual 0.8%, for a total of 1.6%
  76. what is the other 0.4% of the shell made of?
    organic matter, mainly protein
  77. what is the importance of protein in the egg shell?
    provide a matrix to hold the mineral compounds together and make the shell less brittle
  78. what percentage of total egg weight does the shell constitute?
    ~9.5%
  79. about how many pores does an egg shell have?
    7000-1700 pores
  80. what is the purpose of pores in the egg shell?
    permit exchange of gases between the interior and exterior surroundings of the egg
  81. how are pores protected?
    pores are covered with proteinaceous material (keratin/collagen) that secludes microorganisms and prevents microbial contamination
  82. why are different eggs different colors?
    depends on the breed of hen
  83. what makes brown eggs brown?
    • the pigment known as OOPORSHINS
    • (although the internet thinks this is bullshit and the pigment is actually called protoporphyrin)
  84. how many layers of membrane does a shell have and what are they called?
    two layers, a thicker outer membrane and a thinner inner membrane
  85. what are egg shell membranes comprised of?
    proteins (keratin and gelatin)
  86. what is the purpose of egg shell membranes?
    protect against microbial contamination
  87. what is the difference between albumen and albumin?
    albumen is another name for egg white, albumin is a protein in the egg white
  88. what is egg white?
    the opalescent fluid just beneath the egg shell membrane
  89. how many layers are there in the egg white?
    4 layers
  90. what are the 2 outermost layers of the egg white like?
    thinner and referred to as thin albumen
  91. what are the 2 innermost layers of the egg white like?
    they are thicker and more viscous
  92. what is the composition of the albumen?
    90% moisture, 8-10% protein, 1% carbohydrate, 0.05% lipids
  93. what are the major proteins in egg white?
    • ovalbumin
    • ovotransferin
    • ovomucoid
  94. what is ovalbumin?
    • protein found in the viscous or thicker albumen layer
    • highly phosphorylated glycoprotein so referred to as a phosphoglycoprotein
    • readily coagulated or denatured by heat, so participates in heat induced gelation/coagulation of egg proteins
  95. what is ovotransferin?
    this protein binds and transfers Fe
  96. what does bacteriostatic mean?
    acts to prevent bacterial reproduction by stopping DNA replication
  97. what does bactericidal mean?
    acts to kill bacteria by disrupting the cell membrane
  98. what is ovomucoid?
    • much smaller glycoprotein, about half the size of ovalbumin
    • less viscous than ovalbumin and is found in the thin layer albumen
    • has heat resistance and foaming properties and accounts for the ability of egg white to form foams
  99. which protein is responsible for the ability for egg white to form foams?
    ovomucoid
  100. what are the major carbohydrates found associated with ovomucoid?
    • glycosamine
    • mannose
    • galactose
    • sialic acid
  101. what does lysozyme do?
    proteolytic enzyme that acts to disrupt cell walls and thereby prevent microbial contamination
  102. what is ovomucin?
    • large molecular weight glycoprotein, comparable in size to ovalbumin
    • thus it is also viscous and found in the thick layer or more viscous albumen layer
  103. what do flavoproteins do?
    bind riboflavin and participate in the electron transport chain
  104. what is ovoinhibitor?
    a broad spectrum serine protease inhibitor
  105. what does avidin do?
    can bind strongly to biotin and prevent it from transporting CO2 units
  106. how many and which type of proteins are found in the albumen?
    ~0.03% phospholipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol
  107. what are chalazae?
    • cord-like proteinaceous material that transfers the albumen layer from the egg shell membrane to the egg yolk membrane
    • the chalazae act to hold the egg yolk in its place within the egg structure and prevent it from moving around
  108. what is it estimated that 2 eggs a day can provide?
    • 20% of daily protein requirements (65-80g/day)
    • all essential amino acids
    • all essential FAs and high PUFA content, particularly α-linolenic acid
    • all known vitamins except C
    • very high in vitamin D
  109. what percentage of the whole egg is egg white?
    ~63%
  110. what kind of emulsion is an egg yolk?
    oil-in-water
  111. what percentage of the total egg is the yolk?
    ~27.5%
  112. what is the total solids content of an egg yolk?
    52-53%
  113. what is the egg yolk surrounded by?
    a membrane known as vitellin
  114. where does the color range of an egg yolk come from?
    depends on carotenoid content, usually from the animal's diet
  115. what is the composition of an egg yolk?
    • mostly moisture, then 32% lipids, 16% protein
    • carb, vitamin, and mineral content is negligible
  116. which proteins are present in the egg yolk?
    • 2 types of lipoproteins (HDLP and LDLP)
    • lipid-free globular proteins
    • phosphoproteins
  117. what is the density of LDLP?
    density lower than that of water (~.98)
  118. what are the major components of LDLP?
    triglycerides (TGA), phospholipids (PL), and cholesterol
  119. what is the density of HDLP?
    greater than water, so >1
  120. what are the major components of HDLP?
    phospholipids (PL), triglycerides (TGA), with some amount of phosphates
  121. what are livetins?
    • lipid-free globular proteins
    • fat free, devoid of phosphate groups
    • highly ionic and water soluble
    • they are the egg yolk equivalent of blood proteins in terms of function
  122. what are phostivins?
    phosphoproteins in the egg yolk
  123. what are the amino acids present in the phosphoproteins?
    • predominantly serine residues (~50%)
    • and 90% of those are esterified with phosphate groups
  124. what are the phospholipids found in egg yolk?
    • phosphotidyl choline (leuithin)
    • phosphotidyl ethanol amine (cephalin)
    • lysophosphotidyl choline
    • lysophosphotidyl ethanol amine
    • sphyngomylen
  125. what is responsible for the emulsifying capacity of phospholipids?
    they are amphiphilic, with both polar and non-polar sides
  126. what are the types of triglycerides present in egg yolk?
    • SFA (saturated fatty acids)
    • MUFA 
    • PUFA
  127. which are the most common saturated fatty acids in egg yolk?
    palmitic acid and stearic acid
  128. what is the proportion of SFA in egg yolk?
    fairly constant between 30-35%
  129. what is the major MUFA in egg yolk?
    oleic acid
  130. what is the MUFA content in egg yolk?
    ranges between 40-45%
  131. what is the major PUFA in egg yolk?
    linoleic acid
  132. what is the PUFA content in egg yolk?
    20-25%
  133. what is the cholesterol content in an egg yolk?
    ranges from about 1-2mg per 1g of egg yolk
  134. which percentage of egg yolk cholesterol is in the esterified form, with the balance being in the free form?
    about 15-16% is in the esterified form
  135. what is the average diameter of an LDLP micelle?
    ~30nm
  136. which is the most highly phosphorylated protein known to date?
    phosvitin
  137. where is 95% of the iron in eggs found?
    in the yolk
  138. lipids constitute what percentage of total egg yolk solids?
    69%
  139. how are the fatty acids of eggs derived?
    • synthesized through de novo lipogenesis
    • incorporation of dietary lipids
  140. what are some deteriorative changes that occur in dried whole egg and egg yolk?
    due to Maillard reaction (between cephalin and glucose) leads to discoloration and loss of palatability
  141. why remove glucose prior to egg drying?
    curtails the development of off-flavor during storage
  142. how is desugaring of eggs done?
    glucose is removed from egg or egg yolk through addition of glucose oxidase and catalase
  143. what are designer eggs and what are some examples?
    • manipulating the diets fed to birds
    • omega-3 eggs are an example (can reach up to 500-600mg/egg, causes a darker yellow color to the yolk)
    • other examples include vitamin A and E enriched eggs
  144. studies are going on to increase the content of what in eggs?
    essential minerals such as selenium, iodine, chromium through supplementation of hen feed
  145. what is the major pathogen of concern in eggs?
    Salmonella enteritidis (SE)
  146. how does SE contaminate eggs?
    • from the outside of the shell following contamination in the oviduct or from the feces
    • may enter the egg in the oviduct prior to the laying down of the egg shell, although there is limited evidence for this route of contamination
  147. what is an effective safeguard against SE contamination?
    maintenance of eggs at refrigeration temperatures throughout processing
  148. *TRUE OR FALSE: egg shell is primarily calcium apatite.
    • FALSE
    • calcium carbonate
  149. *describe in detail the compositions of egg yolk lipids
    • FA composition in egg yolk is typically 30-35% SFA, 40-45% MUFA, 20-25% PUFA
    • the amount of SFA, primarily palmitic (16:0) and stearic (18:0), is fairly uniform and changes little with changes in the dietary fats
    • in contrast, linoleic acid content increases and oleic acid decreases when the level of dietary PUFA is elevated (this aspect is of particular interest for the improvement of the nutritional value of egg yolk)
  150. *TRUE OR FALSE: storage lipids in muscle are primarily fatty acid triesters of glycerol and the most prevalent fatty acid is oleic acid.
    True

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