Exam 1.csv

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Exam 1.csv
2013-03-07 11:24:00

Neuro Exam 1
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  1. What is the PNS comprised of?
    Somatic and Autonomic nervous systems
  2. What does the somatic nervous system do?
    Transmits sensory information to the CNS and produces facial and skeletal movements.
  3. What does the autonomic nervous system do?
    consists of sympatheric (fight and flight) and parasympatheric (rest and digest) --> handles arousing vs. calming functions
  4. What are the four layers of protection for the brain?
    1. Bone: (Brain protected by the skull
  5. 2. Meniges: (Dura mater (outer)
    Arachnoid membrane (middle)
  6. 3. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF): cushions the brain and spinal cord
    continually being made and drained intothe circulatory system.
  7. 4. Blood Brain Barrier: (comprised of cells of capillaries tightly joined with one another
    prevents blood-borne subtances circulating in the body from crossing into the CNS)
  8. What are the 5 components of a neuron?
    1. Dendrites
  9. 2. Soma
  10. 3. Axon Hillock
  11. 4. Axon
  12. 5. Axon Terminal
  13. What are dendrites and what do they do?
    SpineBranching filaments of a neuron
  14. What is the soma?
    The cell body
  15. What is an Axon
    single neruonal process that transmits information away from the cell
  16. Axon Hillock is...
    the site of origin of a nerve impulse
  17. What is the ARP (Absoulte Refractory Period)
    The voltage gated sodium channels are open/inactive and depolorization/repolorization -- nothing you do can trigger another action potential
  18. What is the RRP?
    During the RRP the voltage channels are returning to the closed state
  19. What is a synaptic cleft?
    Small space between the axon terminal andthe post synaptic membrane of the receptor cell
  20. What is a presynaptic membrane
    membrane of the axon terminal
  21. Postsynaptic membrane
    Contrains receptor molecules that recieve chemical messages from the presynaptic cell
  22. What is EPSP
    Excitatory postsynaptic potential: causes a depoloarization (+ions flow into neruron) of the postsynaptic target
  23. Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)
    Causes a hyperpolarization (+ions flow out of neuron) of the postsynaptic target
  24. Neurotransmitters decativation occurs in 3 ways
    1. Reuptake (reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a transporter of a presynaptic neruron)
  25. 2. Enzymatic degradation
  26. 3. Diffusion
  27. What is a synapse?
    Connection between neurons and other cells
  28. What is a synaptic cleft?
    Space between neurons
  29. Axon terminal is...
    the end of an axon
  30. What are the 5 types of glial cells?
    1. Ependymal cell: (Samll
  31. 2. Astrocyte: (Star shaped
    symmetrical; nutritive and support function)
  32. 3. Microglial: (Small
    mesodermally derived; defensive function)
  33. 4. Oligodendrogilial cell: (Asymmetrical; forms insulating myeling around axons in brain and spinal cord)
  34. 5. Schwann cell: (Asymmetrical; wraps around peripheral nervs to form insulating myelin)
  35. Cytoarchitecture differs across regions and layers of the cortex. T/F?
  36. Why do we divide the brain intoanatomical regions (Brodmann areas)
    Because of reginonal differencs in the cytoarchitecture of neurons
  37. Gray matter is comprised of ...
    cell bodies and capillaries
  38. Afferent neurons carry information ...
    toward (recieve)
  39. Efferent neurons carry info ...
    Away (send)
  40. White matter is...
    axons covered with glial cells
  41. A tract is...
    a large collection of axons
  42. Nucleus/nuclei are ...
    many neruons grouped together (distinctively gray)
  43. Dorsal Root of the spinal cord has what types of fibers? These fibers carry sensory information where?
    Afferent (receiving)
  44. Ventral Root of the spinal cord has what types of fibers? These fibers carry sensory information where?
    Efferent (sending)
  45. The SNS recieves what type of information? Is largely voluntary or involuntary?
    Sensory & Voluntary
  46. The Brain Stem consists of what three areas?
    1. Hindbrain
  47. 2. Midbrain
  48. 3. Diencephalon
  49. The forebrain consists of what three parts
    1. Basal Ganglia
  50. 2. Limbic Lobe
  51. 3. Cerebral Cortex
  52. The brainstem begins where?
    begins where the spinal cord enterst the skull
  53. The Hindbrain consists of what four parts?
    1. Cerebellum
  54. 2. Reticular Formation
  55. 3. Pons
  56. 4 . Medulla
  57. The cerebullum is associated with?
    Learning and coordinateing/ sequencing skilled movements; posture and balance
  58. The pons is responsible for?
    sleep-wake regulation; locomotion
  59. The reticular formation does what?
    Maintains general arousal/consciousness
  60. The Medulla does what?
    maintains vital body funtctions (respirations
  61. The midbrain consists of two main stuctures?
    1. Tectum (roof) (located dorsally)
  62. 2. Tegmentum (floor) (located ventrally)
  63. The tectum consists of what two structures and what are they responsible for?
    1. Superior colliculi: processes visual input
  64. 2. Inferiro colliculi: processes auditory input
  65. Colliculi mediate responese to what type of input and what is their function?
    Sensory inputs
  66. The tegmentum (floor) is comprised of what three parts and what is their purpose?
    1. Red nucleus: controls limb movement
  67. 2. Substania nigra: dopaminergic neruons
    invovled in reward
  68. 3. Periaqueductal gray matter - controls species specific behavior (eg. sexual behavior)
    modulates pain response
  69. The diencephalon consists of what three structures and what are their functions?
    1. Hypothalamus: (Involvely in nearly all aspects of motivated behavior (eg. hunger
  70. 2. Epithalamus: (Poorly understood - involved in bio-rhythms
  71. 3. Thalamus: (Relays incoming (afferent) senesory information to appropiate targets; relays infomraiton between cortical areas; relays information between forebrain and brainstem.
  72. Major Portions of the Brain include ...
    1. Cerebrum
  73. 2. Cerebllum
  74. 3. Brainstem
  75. The forebrain consists of what 3 main structures and what are their functions?
    1. Basal (Involuntary motorl control
  76. 2. Limbic Lobe (Amygdala
  77. 3. Cerebral Cortex (neocortex; 80% of the human brain
  78. The Basal Ganglia and Limbic lobe are subcortical
  79. Limbic Lobe consists of what 4 structures and what are their purposes?
    1. Amygdala: (Emotion and species typical behaviors)
  80. 2. Hippocampus: (Memory and spatial navigation)
  81. 3. Septum: (Emotion and special typical behavior)
  82. 4. Cingulate Cortex: (Affectively-related cognitive processing)
  84. What are the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?
    1. Occipiatal
  85. 2. Parietal
  86. 3. Frontal
  87. 4. Temporal
  88. Neocortical regions are connected by four types of axon projections
    what are they?
  89. 2. Relatively short connections btween one part of a lobe and anoother
  90. 3. Interhemispheric (bridging) connections between homotopic pointsin contralateral hemispheres
  91. 4. Connections btween cortical areas through the thalamus
  92. Axon fibers make what 3 types of connections?
    1. Connections between one lobe of the brain to another
  93. 2. one part of a lobe to another part
  94. 3. one hemishpere of the brain to another
  95. What is an action potential?
    The signal that goes through the axons going from place to another place.
  96. Are cations negative or positive?
    positive (Na+. K+)
  97. Are anionos negative or positive
  98. What is depolorization?
    When membrane channel opens and positive sodium ions rush into the cell and change the membrane potential and make them positive. This is the first phase of the action potential.
  99. What happens in the second phase of the action potential? (Repolarization)
    After Na+ comes in the charge is very very positive
  100. What is the first stage of the action potential?
  101. What is the second phase of the action potential?
  102. What is the last phase of the action potential?
  103. What is hyperpolarization?
    As K+ escapes we overshoot and go lower than the resting membrane potential. Becomes OVERpolarized.
  104. Sodium Potassium Pump does what?
    Pumps 3 Na+ ions out and 2 K+ ions in and bring the potential back to its resting state.
  105. Synaptic Vesicles contain what?
  106. What is the pre-synaptic membrane?
    Membrane that comes right before the space (synaptic cleft)
  107. Membrane that comes after the synaptic cleft?
    post-synaptic membrane
  108. Reuptake:
    reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a transport of a presynaptic neuron. Allows recyling of neurotransmitters
  109. What are the 7 major neurotransmitters?
    1. Acetylcholine (ACh): PNS; activates muscules // CNS; forms the cholinergic sytem
  110. 2. Dopamine (DA): CNS; voluntary movement
  111. 3. Norepinephrine (NE):
  112. 4. Serotonin (5-HT)
  113. 5. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA)
  114. 6. Glutamate (Glu)
  115. 7. Endorphins: produce feelings of wellbeing
  116. Why are we able to make color discriminations in bright light?
    Because of the increased density of cone cells in the fovea
  117. What augments sensitivity to light?
    Increased density of rod cells in the peripheral retina
  118. Light enters the eye through the ...
  119. Light is focused by the lens on recptors in the ...?
  120. receptors in the retina are called?
  121. What are the two types of photoreceptors?
    1. Rods: (Sensitive to dim light -> night vision); located in peripheral retina (absent in fovea)
  122. 2. Cones: (sensitive to bright light -> day and color vision (densely packed in the fovea)
  123. Rods are sensitive to what type of light and help with what vision?Are they present in the fovea?
  124. Cones are sensitive to what time of light? Help with what vision? Are they present in the fovea?
  125. How does vision work in terms of transduction of energy?
    Light is convereted into cehmical energey in the photoreceptors
  126. How does audition work in terms of transduction of energy?
    Air pressure waves are converted into mecanical energy. Mech energy actives aduitory ereceptor cells which then produce action potentials
  127. What are the three parts of the ear?
    1. Outter
  128. 2. Middle
  129. 3. Inner
  130. How does audition work?
    1. Sound waves vibrate teh tymapnic membrane (eardrum)
  131. 2. Three bones in the ear pass vibrations to the cochlea
  132. 3. Cilia make contact with tectorial membrane
  133. 4. When hair cells are excited by virateion a nerve impulse is generated in the auditory nerve
  134. 5. Information is then sent to the brain and interpreted as sound
  135. What is the tympanic membrane and what does it do
  136. What are the 3 ossicle bones in the middle ear?
    1. Incus
  137. 2. Stapes
  138. 3. Malleus
  139. What does the inner ear consist of?
    1. cochlea (hearing)
  140. 2. vestibular system (balance)
  141. What contains the receptors for auditory stimuli?
  142. What are hair cells embedded in the organ of corti?
    auditory receptors
  143. The vestibular system is different from the cochlea how?
    cochlea deals with hearing
  144. ventral cochlear nucleus is different from the dorsal cochlear nucleus how?
    ventral is the longer route
  145. Homunculus means?
    little human
  146. Vestibular system is located where and allows us to do what?
    inner ear
  147. what does the vestibular system consist of?
    1. otolith organs: (repsond to linerar acceleration
  148. 2. semicircular canals: (can respond to any movement of the head)
  149. What is V1 and what BA does it correspond to?
    1. primary visual cortex (striate cortex)
  150. 2. BA 17
  151. V2
  152. 2. BA 18 and 19
  153. What BA make the occipital cortex
    BA 17
  154. BA 17
  155. 2. VA 1-5
  156. V1 is what? Recieve input from what?
    1. Primary visual cortex
  157. 2. Recieve input from lateral geniculate nucleus
  158. Located in middle of occipital lobe
  159. V1 neurons respond to
    small differences in visual orientation
  160. Doral Stream is know as the [blank] pathway? Why?
    1. where pathway
  161. 2. associated with object location and control of the eyes when information is used to guide reaching.
  162. Ventral Stream is know as the [blank] pathway? Why?
    1. What pathway
  163. 2. Associated with form and object recognition
  164. What is the hippocampus responsible for?
    consolidation of long-term memories
  165. What is the amygdala responsible for?
    adding value and meaning to memory
  166. Broca's area is located where?
    Frontal lobe
  167. Wernicke's area is located where?
    Just infront of the occipital lobe
  168. Broca's and Wernicke's area are along what gyrus?
    The superior temporal
  169. Cool EF refers to what?
    Higher level cognitive control; working memory
  170. Personality is what lobe?
  171. Hot EF refers to what
    Affectively laden judgment and behavioral control