anatomy and physiology

Card Set Information

anatomy and physiology
2013-03-15 00:01:10

exam 2
Show Answers:

  1. What is part of the integumentary system?
    skin, nails, hair and cutaneous glands
  2. What are the functions of the skin?
    • protection
    • vitamin d production
    • thermoregulation
    • sensation
  3. How many types of bone cells are there?
  4. What are the 4 types fo bone cells?
    • osteogenic
    • osteoblasts
    • osteocytes
    • osteoclasts
  5. What are osteogenic cells?
    • type of stem cell
    • continually reproduce and some go on to become osteoblasts
  6. Where are osteogenic cells located?
    in the endosteum and periosteum
  7. What are osteoblasts?
    bone-building cells
  8. what creates the matrix of bone tissue?
  9. What lowers blood calcium levels with their activity?
  10. What are osteocytes?
    former osteoblasts that have completed their creation of the matrix and are now trapped in the matrix.
  11. Where do osteocytes reside?
    in the lacuna
  12. What manages and maintains the bone tissue around them?
  13. What are osteoclasts?
    • dissolve bone tissue
    • free stored calcium
    • raise blood calcium levels
  14. What is the matrix?
    non-living material created by osteoblasts and managed by osteocytes
  15. What is matrix composed of?
    • 1/3 organic (collagen)
    • 2/3 inorganic (hydroxyapatite)
  16. What are compact bone tissue?
    how the cells and matrix are arranged.
  17. What is an osteon?
    structural unit of compact bone tissue
  18. What is a cylindrical structure composed of a central canal and cells and a matrix arranged around it?
  19. The central canal has blood vessels and nerves to provide what?
    • nutrients
    • waste removal
    • communication for the cells of the osteon
  20. Osteocytes are arranged in a circle around the central canal and reside inside what?
    the lacunae
  21. What are the lamellae?
    the rings of matrix around the central canal
  22. What is the canaliculi?
    The osteocytes are connected to each other and the central canal by numerous, small tunnels through the matrix
  23. Spongy bone tissue occurs in lace-like structures known as what?
  24. What is spongy bone tissue composed of?
    collagen, hydroxyapatite and cells. no osteons
  25. What leads to hollow chambers between trabeculae where red bone marrow exists(homopoisesis) is what?
    spongy bone tissue
  26. What is the stratum spinosum like?
    • very thick zone
    • composed mostly of keratinocytes
  27. What is the function of stratum spinosum?
    • vitamin D production and protection
    • dendritic cells are specialized
    • macrophages that patrol the skin
  28. Keratinocytes that produce lipid granules are what?
    stratum granulosum
  29. Where is stratum lucedum only found?
    areas of thick skin
  30. What are stratum lucedum?
    • many layers of flatened dead keratinocytes
    • clear cells
    • contribute to callouses
  31. Everything above what layer is dead?
    stratum lucedum
  32. note: stratum lucedum is the layer that swells up and keeps water out. used to better grip things with hands/feet with when wet.
  33. The dry, protective layer of dead keratinocytes are what?
    stratum corneum
  34. The stratum corneum soughs off on a regular basis and is replaced by what?
    newer cells from below
  35. When you touch skin, what is the layer you are touching?
    stratum corneum
  36. What does the dermis contain?
    • mostly connective tissue
    • lots of collagen and elastin
  37. What is elastin like?
    tough, recoils, stretchy, rubbery feeling
  38. What are the 4 types of cutaneous sweat glands?
    • merocrine
    • apocrine
    • sebaceous
    • ceruminous
  39. Merocrine glands do what?
    • use ducts to secrete sweat upon epidermis
    • cools skin
    • helps excrete some waste
  40. What secretes sweat like fluid in arm pit and groin area when aroused or scared?
    apocrine gland
  41. Who has apocrine glands?
    those who have reached puberty
  42. Where is the apocrine gland located?
    hair follical shaft
  43. Where are sebaceous glands?
    all areas where there is hair follicles
  44. Sebaceous glands secrete what?
    an oily substance called sebum
  45. What is the purpose of the sebaceous gland?
    to coat hair and substance to make it oily and smooth
  46. Where is the ceruminous gland located?
    in the auditory canal of the ear
  47. What does ceruminous gland secrete?
  48. What is in the Dermis?
    • blood vessels
    • hair and nails
    • nerves
  49. What is the hypodermis composed of?
    mostly adipose tissue and many blood vessels
  50. How many bones in the skeleton?
  51. What is the function of bone?
    • support
    • protect
    • movement
    • mineral storage
    • blood formation (hemoposesis)
  52. What are the types of bones?
    • long bones
    • short bones
    • flat bones
    • irregular bones
  53. Where are long bones found?
    tibia, fibula, humerous, femur, phalanges
  54. Where are short bones found?
    carpals, tarsals
  55. Where are flat bones found?
    oxcosa, cranium, ribs, sternum
  56. Where are irregular bones found?
    vertebrae, sphenoid, hyoid
  57. The epiphysis is what?
    the end of a long bone
  58. the diaphysis is what?
    the shaft of a long bone
  59. Where is red bone marrow found?
    • between trabeculae of spongy bone
    • where blood cell formation occurs (hemopoiesis)
  60. What is composed of adipose tissue and fills the marrow cavity?
    yellow bone marrow
  61. What is the endosteum?
    tissue that lines the marrow cavity of a long bone
  62. What is the hollow chamber within the diaphysis of a long bone?
    marrow cavity
  63. What is compact bone?
    • densely-packed bone tissue
    • composed of cells and minerals
    • provides strength
  64. What soft tissue surrounds the bone?
  65. Strands of the lattice are called what?
  66. Spongy bone is what?
    bone tissue composed of cells and minerals that extend in a lattice
  67. What does articular cartilage prevent?
    bone on bone rubbing at joints
  68. What is articular cartilage?
    hyaline cartilage around the epiphyses
  69. There are 3 layers of the skin. What are they?
    • epidermis: outermost
    • dermis: middle
    • hypodermis: below or innermost layer
  70. The epidermis is composed to many layers of flat cells called what?
    epithelial tissue
  71. Does the epidermis have blood?
  72. What is the fastest healing tissue in the body?
  73. How many types of cells does the epidermis have?
  74. What are the 5 types of cells in the epidermis?
    • Stratum Basale
    • stratum spinosum
    • stratum granulosum
    • stratum lucedum
    • stratum corneum
  75. What are the 3 types of cells in the basale? layer?
    • keratinocyte
    • tactile cells
    • melanocytes
  76. The stratum basale is what?
    • deepest, base layer
    • only about 1 cell layer thick
  77. What is the most numerous type of cell in the epidermis?
  78. In what zone do cells multiply to move up and replace older cells near the surface?
  79. Are keratinocyte skin cells?
  80. What is the function of keratinocyte?
    as they age, they will flatten, and produce keratin
  81. What is keratin?
    it is tough and provides many layers to protect underlying tissue
  82. What uses ultraviolet radiation to begin the production of vitamin D?
  83. Tactile cells are sensitive to what?
    stimulation of some type
  84. What detects pressure at the surface and stimulates fibers in the dermis?
    Tactile cells
  85. What is melanin?
    protein with a brown pigment to it,
  86. What do melanocytes produce?
  87. Melanin absorbs UV radiation and protects underlying tissues
  88. What are joints?
    Areas where 2 bones articulate and interact.
  89. How can joints be classified by?
    how they are built (structured) or how much movement they allow (function)
  90. What three types of joints are there?
    • fibrousĀ 
    • cartilaginous
    • synovial
  91. What are fibrous joints?
    Bones are held together tightly by numerous collagen fibers.
  92. What joints have very little to no movement?
    fibrous joints
  93. What types of fibrous joints are there?
    • sutures
    • gomphosis
    • syndesmosis
  94. Where are sutures?
    in the skull
  95. Where are gomphosis?
    teeth to bones
  96. Where are syndesmosis?
    tibia to fibula
  97. What are cartilaginous joints?
    bones that are held together by hyaline or fibrocartilage
  98. What joints have moderate movement?
    cartilaginous joints
  99. What does synarthrosis mean?
    little to no movement
  100. What does amphiarthrosis mean?
    moderate movement
  101. What kinds of cartilaginous joints are there?
    • synchondrosis(hylaine)
    • symphyses (fibrocartilage)
  102. Where is synchondrosis found?
    1st rib to sternum
  103. Where is symphysis found?
    • between the pubis bones (pubic symphysis)
    • between vertebrae
  104. What are synovial joints?
    bone ends surrounded by a fluid filled cavity
  105. What joints are freely moveable?
    synovial joints
  106. What does diarthrosis mean?
    freely moveable
  107. What types of synovial joints are there?
    • ball and socket
    • hinge
    • pivot
    • plane
    • saddle
    • condylar
  108. note: you cannot flex a muscle, only a joint
  109. flexion
    decrease angle of a joint
  110. extension
    increase angle of a joint
  111. hyperextension
    going beyond anatomical posistion
  112. How many skeletal muscles are in the body?
    over 600
  113. What three types of muscle tissue are there?
    • skeletal
    • cardiacĀ 
    • smooth
  114. What is the function of the muscular system?
    • movement
    • stability
    • control of body openings and passages
    • heat production
  115. What three types of muscle tissue are there?
    • skeletal
    • cardiac
    • smooth
  116. what are skeletal muscle tissues like?
    • striated
    • multinucleated cells
    • voluntary
  117. What are cardiac muscle tissues like?
    • striated
    • branched
    • intercalated discs between the cells
    • involuntary
  118. What are smooth muscle tissues like?
    • lacks striations
    • involuntary
  119. where are smooth muscle tissues found?
    within the walls of the digestive system, reproductive system, and blood vessels
  120. What are the 5 characteristics of muscle cells?
    • excitable
    • conductivity
    • contractile
    • extensible
    • elastic
  121. What types of muscle tissues are in the muscle?
    • epimysium
    • perimysium
    • endomysium
    • tendon
  122. What enwraps the entire muscle and is often referred to as fascia?
  123. What does the perimysium enwrap?
    each fascicle
  124. What does the endomysium enwrap?
    each muscle fiber(cell)
  125. What is a tendon?
    • gathering of epimysium at the end of the muscle
    • binds muscle to bone
  126. bundles of muscle fibers are what?
  127. What are muscle fibers?
    cells that are capable of contraction and relaxation
  128. To understand how a muscle cell can contract and relax we have to look at what?
    its organelles and cytosol
  129. What is the plasma membrane of a muscle cell?
  130. What are sarcolemma capable of conductiong?
    electrical waves across its surface
  131. Along its outer surface, there are areas that contain special receptors needed for exciting the cell. What is this?
  132. What is the smooth ER of a muscle cell called?
    sarcoplasmic reticulum
  133. What does sarcoplasmic reticulum contain?
    • calcium gates and calcium pumps in its walls.
    • stores calcium ions
  134. What are the two transverse tubules in the muscle?
    • sarcolema
    • myofilaments
  135. What is a sarcolema?
    lined tunnels from one side of the cell to the other
  136. What are myofilaments
    collections of proteins in the cytosol
  137. What are some characteristics of myofilaments?
    • occur in two varieties: thick and thin
    • arranged in a staggered pattern
  138. The sliding of the myofilaments across each other is what causes what?
    muscles to contract
  139. What is the neuromuscular junction?
    area where nervous system interacts w/and stimulates the muscular system