anatomy and physiology
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anatomy and physiology
What is part of the integumentary system?
skin, nails, hair and cutaneous glands
What are the functions of the skin?
vitamin d production
How many types of bone cells are there?
What are the 4 types fo bone cells?
What are osteogenic cells?
type of stem cell
continually reproduce and some go on to become osteoblasts
Where are osteogenic cells located?
in the endosteum and periosteum
What are osteoblasts?
what creates the matrix of bone tissue?
What lowers blood calcium levels with their activity?
What are osteocytes?
former osteoblasts that have completed their creation of the matrix and are now trapped in the matrix.
Where do osteocytes reside?
in the lacuna
What manages and maintains the bone tissue around them?
What are osteoclasts?
dissolve bone tissue
free stored calcium
raise blood calcium levels
What is the matrix?
non-living material created by osteoblasts and managed by osteocytes
What is matrix composed of?
1/3 organic (collagen)
2/3 inorganic (hydroxyapatite)
What are compact bone tissue?
how the cells and matrix are arranged.
What is an osteon?
structural unit of compact bone tissue
What is a cylindrical structure composed of a central canal and cells and a matrix arranged around it?
The central canal has blood vessels and nerves to provide what?
communication for the cells of the osteon
Osteocytes are arranged in a circle around the central canal and reside inside what?
What are the lamellae?
the rings of matrix around the central canal
What is the canaliculi?
The osteocytes are connected to each other and the central canal by numerous, small tunnels through the matrix
Spongy bone tissue occurs in lace-like structures known as what?
What is spongy bone tissue composed of?
collagen, hydroxyapatite and cells. no osteons
What leads to hollow chambers between trabeculae where red bone marrow exists(homopoisesis) is what?
spongy bone tissue
What is the stratum spinosum like?
very thick zone
composed mostly of keratinocytes
What is the function of stratum spinosum?
vitamin D production and protection
dendritic cells are specialized
macrophages that patrol the skin
Keratinocytes that produce lipid granules are what?
Where is stratum lucedum only found?
areas of thick skin
What are stratum lucedum?
many layers of flatened dead keratinocytes
contribute to callouses
Everything above what layer is dead?
note: stratum lucedum is the layer that swells up and keeps water out. used to better grip things with hands/feet with when wet.
The dry, protective layer of dead keratinocytes are what?
The stratum corneum soughs off on a regular basis and is replaced by what?
newer cells from below
When you touch skin, what is the layer you are touching?
What does the dermis contain?
mostly connective tissue
lots of collagen and elastin
What is elastin like?
tough, recoils, stretchy, rubbery feeling
What are the 4 types of cutaneous sweat glands?
Merocrine glands do what?
use ducts to secrete sweat upon epidermis
helps excrete some waste
What secretes sweat like fluid in arm pit and groin area when aroused or scared?
Who has apocrine glands?
those who have reached puberty
Where is the apocrine gland located?
hair follical shaft
Where are sebaceous glands?
all areas where there is hair follicles
Sebaceous glands secrete what?
an oily substance called sebum
What is the purpose of the sebaceous gland?
to coat hair and substance to make it oily and smooth
Where is the ceruminous gland located?
in the auditory canal of the ear
What does ceruminous gland secrete?
What is in the Dermis?
hair and nails
What is the hypodermis composed of?
mostly adipose tissue and many blood vessels
How many bones in the skeleton?
What is the function of bone?
blood formation (hemoposesis)
What are the types of bones?
Where are long bones found?
tibia, fibula, humerous, femur, phalanges
Where are short bones found?
Where are flat bones found?
oxcosa, cranium, ribs, sternum
Where are irregular bones found?
vertebrae, sphenoid, hyoid
The epiphysis is what?
the end of a long bone
the diaphysis is what?
the shaft of a long bone
Where is red bone marrow found?
between trabeculae of spongy bone
where blood cell formation occurs (hemopoiesis)
What is composed of adipose tissue and fills the marrow cavity?
yellow bone marrow
What is the endosteum?
tissue that lines the marrow cavity of a long bone
What is the hollow chamber within the diaphysis of a long bone?
What is compact bone?
densely-packed bone tissue
composed of cells and minerals
What soft tissue surrounds the bone?
Strands of the lattice are called what?
Spongy bone is what?
bone tissue composed of cells and minerals that extend in a lattice
What does articular cartilage prevent?
bone on bone rubbing at joints
What is articular cartilage?
hyaline cartilage around the epiphyses
There are 3 layers of the skin. What are they?
: below or innermost layer
The epidermis is composed to many layers of flat cells called what?
Does the epidermis have blood?
What is the fastest healing tissue in the body?
How many types of cells does the epidermis have?
What are the 5 types of cells in the epidermis?
What are the 3 types of cells in the basale? layer?
The stratum basale is what?
deepest, base layer
only about 1 cell layer thick
What is the most numerous type of cell in the epidermis?
In what zone do cells multiply to move up and replace older cells near the surface?
Are keratinocyte skin cells?
What is the function of keratinocyte?
as they age, they will flatten, and produce keratin
What is keratin?
it is tough and provides many layers to protect underlying tissue
What uses ultraviolet radiation to begin the production of vitamin D?
Tactile cells are sensitive to what?
stimulation of some type
What detects pressure at the surface and stimulates fibers in the dermis?
What is melanin?
protein with a brown pigment to it,
What do melanocytes produce?
Melanin absorbs UV radiation and protects underlying tissues
What are joints?
Areas where 2 bones articulate and interact.
How can joints be classified by?
how they are built (structured) or how much movement they allow (function)
What three types of joints are there?
What are fibrous joints?
Bones are held together tightly by numerous collagen fibers.
What joints have very little to no movement?
What types of fibrous joints are there?
Where are sutures?
in the skull
Where are gomphosis?
teeth to bones
Where are syndesmosis?
tibia to fibula
What are cartilaginous joints?
bones that are held together by hyaline or fibrocartilage
What joints have moderate movement?
What does synarthrosis mean?
little to no movement
What does amphiarthrosis mean?
What kinds of cartilaginous joints are there?
Where is synchondrosis found?
1st rib to sternum
Where is symphysis found?
between the pubis bones (pubic symphysis)
What are synovial joints?
bone ends surrounded by a fluid filled cavity
What joints are freely moveable?
What does diarthrosis mean?
What types of synovial joints are there?
ball and socket
note: you cannot flex a muscle, only a joint
decrease angle of a joint
increase angle of a joint
going beyond anatomical posistion
How many skeletal muscles are in the body?
What three types of muscle tissue are there?
What is the function of the muscular system?
control of body openings and passages
What three types of muscle tissue are there?
what are skeletal muscle tissues like?
What are cardiac muscle tissues like?
intercalated discs between the cells
What are smooth muscle tissues like?
where are smooth muscle tissues found?
within the walls of the digestive system, reproductive system, and blood vessels
What are the 5 characteristics of muscle cells?
What types of muscle tissues are in the muscle?
What enwraps the entire muscle and is often referred to as fascia?
What does the perimysium enwrap?
What does the endomysium enwrap?
each muscle fiber(cell)
What is a tendon?
gathering of epimysium at the end of the muscle
binds muscle to bone
bundles of muscle fibers are what?
What are muscle fibers?
cells that are capable of contraction and relaxation
To understand how a muscle cell can contract and relax we have to look at what?
its organelles and cytosol
What is the plasma membrane of a muscle cell?
What are sarcolemma capable of conductiong?
electrical waves across its surface
Along its outer surface, there are areas that contain special receptors needed for exciting the cell. What is this?
What is the smooth ER of a muscle cell called?
What does sarcoplasmic reticulum contain?
calcium gates and calcium pumps in its walls.
stores calcium ions
What are the two transverse tubules in the muscle?
What is a sarcolema?
lined tunnels from one side of the cell to the other
What are myofilaments
collections of proteins in the cytosol
What are some characteristics of myofilaments?
occur in two varieties
: thick and thin
arranged in a staggered pattern
The sliding of the myofilaments across each other is what causes what?
muscles to contract
What is the neuromuscular junction?
area where nervous system interacts w/and stimulates the muscular system