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Lewis Henry Morgan
- Lawyer turned anthropologist who studied the Iriqois and in to evolution
- Leader of progressivism-diffusion and unilineal evolution.
- Societal evolution and Evolution of Governments
- Look at societies outside of time as living fossils. Not used much today. Savagery (lower, middle, upper) to Barbarism (lower, middle, upper) to civilization
- Effects are political, civil, and religious
Evolutions of Government
- Societas-patrilineal clans (kinship) is the first stage. Evolve in complexity to tribe then tribe confederacy
- Civitas-township based organization. Evolve in complexity to province then nation-state
- Studied political organization based on type of government
- Band-no power/authority, egalitarian. Even though some might find meat first, all will get it
- Tribal cultivators-limited power and authority. Usually generous ex; Potlaches
- Chiefdom-much power and authority, which is more permanent with symbols like crown/hat. Socioeconomic stratification, with few having access to limited resources, giving them capital over the masses. Marriage can be used to maintain stratification=stratum endogamy
- State-Lots of power and authority over many communities in a region with a central government. Usually fiscal control (tax), draft, population control (passports, immigration, birth policies), judiciary laws, law enforcement (military, police)
Ability to exercise will over others
Socially approved use of power
- Friend-friend=perhaps power but no authority
- Parent-child=changes as a function of age of the child and means of authority can change in society (spanking?)
- Police-citizen=power and authority for police
- 3 dimensions of sociostratification;
- economic (based on wealth)
- political (based on power)
- social (based on prestige)
- "Hegemony and Resistance"
- Created concept of hegemony-dominance of one social group over other by means of an ideology that justifies their power, claiming its for the good of all. Better than coercive rule which is expensive and unstable.
Resisting Hegemony, looking at public transcript, hidden transcript, public expression
Public interactions between powerful and subordinate to show power
Behind the back of the powerful to critique. Can be turned into Public Expression
Publicly showing discontent. A classic weapon of the subordinate is music
Mechanisms that regulate behavior, formal and informal
Formal Means of Social Control
Laws and regulations
Informal Means of Social Control
- Moral injuctions-can be religious
- Ostracism-excluded from society or activity
- Gossip-regulates behavior, but usually just makes in done in secret vs. public
- Satire-erodes prestige
- Public humiliation-self explanatory (to catch a predator)
- Media-education/propaganda campaigns. Use shame, humiliation, fear tactics Ex; Peta and smoking ads. Often use children to shame adults
- "American Schoolrooms; Learning the Nightmare"
- Form of teaching has changed from rote learning to free thinking, but kids still must be enculturated to conformity so that they're manageable.
- Learn competition and behavior. Failure is punished, but success is not necessarily rewarded
Shearing and Stenning
- "Say Cheese"
- Social control mechanisms in Disney World
- Car lanes and tool booths for efficiency
- Physical and natural barriers
- Employee surveilence
- Staged photos for publicity
- Characters don't talk
- Control is consensual because they can take away your access to the park
- "Biometric Security"
- Physical-face, fingerprint, etc
- Behavioral-handwriting, voice pattern
- Focus on history (not cultural consequences) creates governmentality (Foucault) and Panopticism where people monitor themselves because they know/think they're being watched
- Hershel 1858 India 1st used handprint for legal binding
- Galton search for racial link to fingerprints. Found no link, but did find all had different prints
- Bertillon mugshots, fingerprints, and other biodata for police in Paris. Thought this could bring utopia
- Current biodata innovations have similar talk
- Used to be super important
- Δ is male
- ☐ is female
- = is marriage
- children left to right=oldest to youngest
- Blood relatives
- Parents, not step parents
- brothers and sisters if share a bio parent
- aunt and uncle sometimes depending on if through marriage
- all cousins
- Through marriage
- Step/in law etc (this can include certain aunts and uncles)
- No relation
- God parents, "uncle", adoption, foreign exchange, frats/sororities
- Unilineal-traced either through mom (matrilineal) or dad (patrilineal)
- Bilateral-traced through mom and dad
- Important for interactions, debts, vengeance, and inheritance
- "Joking Relationships"
- Colonial administrator turned anthropologist
- Proponent of functionalism-understand how institutions function and search for universal laws. A departure from the evolutionary perspective, looking at how it functions instead of wondering how it arose. Look at marriage and jokes; asymmetrical and symmetrical with younger inlaws and same age inlaws (joking relationship). Formal relationship between husband and elder. This maintains order and reduces tensions because wife is still part of parents family, so they must protect her
- Definition varies by culture
- Murdock-Social group characterized etc., defined by living together, economic cooperation, sexual relations. Exceptions where spouses don't coreside and same sex no biological kids
- US Census- 2 or more people related by birth, marriage, or adoption who live together
- Kotak-Family of orientation-where you grew up Family of procreation-spouse and kids
- William Skimer-Family Systems-Describes systems with different obligations and normative manner in which processes unfold. Conjugal (nuclear) like US separates by generation and Stem (extended) 2 or more generations but only one married kid is heir and gets to remain in the house Joint (extended) 2 or more generations and 2 or more marriages per generation. Inheritance to all living in the house. Is very complex and can fall apart easily
US Family System
Monogamous, conjugal (nuclear) wife takes surname, siblings inherent equally, sometimes oldest son gets a bit more
- "Focus on the Fridge"
- Fridge as become universal in the US. It used to imply female gender dimensions, now is more male associated. According to Maschio It is a ritual space where people put special stuff on it; photos of special people, magnets about identity, personal notes and calendars=command and control center.
- Refrigerator rights associated with it like do you help yerself at a strangers/lesser known person's house? Is there and age for "help yerself"? Nocturnal raids suggest limited access
Difficult to define. Patrilocality-live in his house. Matrilocality-her house. Neolocality (like the US). Incest taboos in all societies, but definition of incest can change; US includes all consanguineal, afinal, and fictive in at least some manner (legally). Culturally cousins are included as incest, but legally it is okay. Nepal use patrilineal descent, so unless they are related to dad, they're fair game. In fact, mom's sibling's kid is preferred
Groom's family pays bride's family to compensate for loss of family member to other family
Bride's family pays groom's family because they have economically burdened them by adding a wife to the mix, and this provides the bride with economic security
Widower marries the sister of his deceased wife
Widow marries the brother of her deceased husband
Marriage preferred within a certain social group that one belongs to (Age, race, religion, socioeconomic, etc)
Marriage outside one's group is preferred (family or gender are most common)
- "Land of the Walking Marriage"
- Yunon Province, China has no formal marriage system
- Musuo Family System-female heads household. Males walk back and forth. No dowry or coresidence. Love based, and can have multiple lovers.
- Still there are rules; need approval from parents and friends. Gifts are exchanged (dowry/bridewealth-ish?) Land stays in consanguineal family and all siblings contribute to welfare of family. No in law conflicts is a bonus
Plural Marriage (polygamy)
- Polygyny-many wives
- Polyandry-many husbands
- "When Brothers Share a Wife"
- Ensures family unity, but leaves some women unmarried causing lower fertility rate and keeping population growth down
- Patrilocal, man gets inheritance and bride might get dowry
- Avoids the problem of breaking up the land for the family of each brother. Also, each brother can stay at home and do different jobs on the land
- It was assumed that polyandry would go away as technology increased, but this is not the case
- Currently: Two oldest sons stay in house and polyander it up. Oldest son does field work. Next son learns trade/skill. Younger sons are redundant, so they get education and choice of marriage, which brings in more money for the family. Two oldest daughters get arranged marriages. Younger daughters are sent out (but not removed financially) and can have choice marriage. They usually open a shop.
- Family dynamics: oldest brother is referred to as father regardless of actual biological father. Figure out a sex schedule; either wife's, parent's, or oldest brother's job to make sure everyone is happy with sex schedule
- "Persistence of Polygamy"
- More about polygyny and Mormons in Utah, who denounced the practice in 1890, but it is estimated that 20-60k still practice in secret. Classic issues are lack of female autonomy, early child marriage, incest, marriages appointed by church. Are these isolated events or the general practice?
- Supporters of polygyny argue that men are evolutionarily wired to have multiple sex partners, men have urge for many mates, it keeps sex within the marriage, kids aren't split by an unfaithful husband, "Sisterhood" is security.
- The article shows some ethnocentric bias
- "Arranging a Marriage in India"
- Contrary to western individualism and romance.
- Emphasis on family of bride and extended family values
- Takes stress off of being popular and the big decision of whom to marry
- Technology is portrayed as giving more choice
- (Film) Wodaabe in Niger have arranged and choice marriages (given wives and love wives)
- Taboo if wife is from same clan or father's clan
- Yaaki is an event where the guys wear makeup, dance, and steal wives (and sometimes use love magic)
- Marriage is confirmed by animal slaughter and patrilocal
- They really aren't that different from us
- "Sex and Consequences"
- Looks at what happens to societies that pardon same sex, polygamy, out-of-wedlock birth, pedophilia
- Argues using the ethnographic record suggests that it causes the decay of society
- Etoro practice same sex marriage making men more secret and women marginalized (super low sample size study)
- Says homosexuality leads to pedophilia and is maladaptive because leads to low birth rates (other countries have low birthrates where homosexual is taboo)
- Striving to understand culture through cultural relativism.
- Some Christians are against it.
- Same sex couples are much like heteros; monogamy, commitment, love, marriage ceremony is the same.
- Good example of agency and changing culture
Demise of American Family
- Societal idea of family is married couple with kids (99% answer this)
- The examples of this being the actual case has declined
- Currently there are more transitions in life (divorce, cohabitation, living with folks)
- Definition of family has remained the same though (the census defines it differently though) and is being expanded to include same sex couples
Biologically determined characteristics that define males and females
Socially constructed meaning that is created and developed by a society and a perception of sex
- Student of Franz Boaz and Ruth Benedict, so she combined Boaz's historical particularism and Benedict's culture and personality (and how that determines individuality)
- Well known at her time
- (Benedictian) Values from art, literature, politics, religion shape the individual. Thus gender stereotypes and stratification are socially constructed
- (Boazian) Argued that if it is not socially constructed then stereotypes and stratum should be the same across culture and time
- "gendering" begins at birth with naming and dressing
- At toddler stage interactions with boys and girl are different (rough and tumble vs tea parties)
- Birthdays gender a lot
- (Kotak) tasks and activities for genders in society
- Women do more sustaining and education in home (food and homework)
- Men are more fun and recreation
- Things like men liking cars and DIY. They are practical but not as clever as they think nor helpful
- Women are bad drivers?
- What about male insurance rates, DUIs, speeding, recklessness?
- Rights and responsibilities of different genders. Often the things that men do are valued more highly than women's.
- Public-domestic Dichotomy-a strong one correlates to more stratification
- Rosaldo asks how come we see this dichotomy in almost every society
- Kotak charts the changes in the dichotomy in the US. Late 1800s women took more part in the labor force, but then immigration peaked around this time and nudged women out. 40's had low immigration and WWII, so women were back in the labor force. 50s-60s WWII is over and immigration back on the rise. Hollywood and pop culture defines woman to home. Currently the dichotomy is going down again, but the daycare industry is going up and this is usually dominated by women
- Housekeeping Monthly-super gendered
- I'm Glad I'm a Boy; I'm Glad I'm a Girl-satire that plays on the idea of gender stereotypes and stratification
- "Strengths and Weaknesses of an Anthropological Dichotomy"
- Says it is an appealing hypothesis, but it doesn't always hold up.
- French men and women use the public space for the same amount of time, but at different parts of the day.
- Middle Eastern gender roles are not necessarily reflected in the dichotomy, despite patrilocal marriage and women not being allowed in public without a man. Claims that women have lots of influence in other areas.
- Dichotomy is too simple and unneuanced
- Need to look at gender relations instead of just gender. Look at different roles that can be possessed by members of the same gender, and how age, position, etc affect this.
- Agency of women is important. They often have different views from men like liquor in Nepal
Urla and Swendland
- "Measuring up to Barbie"
- Evidence suggests that women are discontent with their body. Is this connected to Barbies?
- Beauty, fashion, weightloss industries all have invested interests in creating the Beauty Myth-the body can never be feminine enough
- Barbie is a visual tactile and interactive example of beauty and very universal
- Enculturation through playing with the German prostitute and ads suggest that you want to be like Barbie
- In the Cold War Barbie was a symbol of American aspirations of prosperity and domestic containment
- The Barbie hypothesis can't be tested, but it is interesting
- New Barbies are CEOs and minorities
- What about the argument that Barbie's body is unideal because it is nonreproductive
- "Rituals of Manhood"
- Sambia in Papua New Guinea has history of warfare, so men must be strong.
- Infants raised by women up to a point, and children are raised by men exclusive
- The believe that sex is by nature, but gender must be created by how the child is raised
- Patrilocal residence and descent
- Compared to the Mosuo who do everything matrilocal and have less gender differences
Biologically between sexes
Sex and gender don't match
Recognized 3rd gender in India. They are marginalized, but also can confer blessings of fertility. They have their own social group with families
- Huge ongoing debate of nature vs. nurture. It is clear that society does shape it in some way (endogamy and exogamy, incest, monogamy)
- Historical importance ex; feudal Europe the younger sons often joined celibate groups because they would not get inheritance
- Communities define norms of dating and events and sex ed.
- Societies view of who you date can impact your sexuality
- Institutions can have say like religion and birth control or premarital sex. Government limits sex (race, age, gender, species)
Sexuality and Culture
- (Kotak) Sex is like food. It is natural, but shaped by culture and customs are shared by a society.
- Art of seduction
- Sex in ads
- "Female Selective Abortions"
- Since 1982 a skewed (above 105:100) birth rate for sex. Usually in East Asian countries
- One Child Policy (1978)
- Ultrasounds (1980s)
- Modernization has played a role in this, making it easier
- Seen in Canadian immigrant population
- High male:female ration is correlated with violence
- Is gender a birth defect?
- "Ladies Behind Bars"
- Gender is redefined and reconstructed in prison
- Real Men-ability to fight and resist sexual advances
- Ladies/Queens-voluntarily become female
- Kids-kept in servitude for power or prestige
- Gumps/Punks-servitude by gang and pimped out
- Dykes-female guards
- Thus gender can be created by a society, even in an all male environment. Seems like caricatures of gender
- There is a spectrum
- Created through direct transmission
- Ritual (football)
- Informal social control (quit crying)
- Media (ads show that sculpted guys get the girl)
- This actually doesn't really apply anymore
- Gendered violence as entertainment. Men are strong and they scare women who are weaker.
- Happy Violence like the Marx brothers, so it shows no negative consequences
- Money, fame is linked to sexual control
- Girls are very harassed in sexual ways
- Not all guys are guilty of this, but some feel emboldened by the anonymity and lack of consequence compared to face to face. Also they have an audience
- Places where men outnumber women are often linked to violence (video games and WWE) (Miller)
- Females are devalued in these societies (Herdt and Coggeshall)
A human universal usually involving the supernatural. Defined by beliefs and practices
- Unilineal evolution of societies linked to religion
- animism to polytheism to monotheism to atheism.
- Believes that science and atheism rise while, religion goes down as society gets more civilized
- This hasn't happened yet
- Why? Because religion is comforting and encultured and gives identity
- Symbolic association with animal through stipulated descent, creating solidarity with apical ancestor at top.
- Similar to school mascots?
- Common in South Pacific. A sacred impersonal force in an object bestows fortune.
- We have lucky objects too
- Supernatural technique with aim.
- Incantations, spells, formula, offering, actions.
- Most prevalent in situations of high risk and low control
- Reduces stress and gives sense of control
- Like gambling stuff
- Strong social prohibition against action, word, discussion, object, person, that is considered undesirable by society. Usually there is a supernatural sanction.
- We have these, but the consequence is usually ostracism
Stylized and repetitive in a sacred place at a special time. Rites of passage is an example
Rites of Passage
- Change of social status
- Separation withdrawal from society symbolically through clothing or physically
- Liminal-not like normal societal structure (homogeneity, equality, anonymity, naked/uniform, total obedience, excess (restraint/indulge), no avoidance of pain or suffering). This creates communitas, where all distinctions (rich/poor etc.) are removed and a strong bond is formed
- Incorporation-rejoin society, but everything is different now
- Uses nonhuman powers to do harm
- Passed on consaguineally
- wide distribution across cultures
- Accusations of witchcraft increase during social upheaval and stress, usually against the socially marginalized
E.E. Evans Pritchard
- Studies witchcraft in Zandeland Africa. Mainly males are witchdoctors. British controlling Africa at the time and using them as justification for taking over (they're uncivilized)
- Witchcraft explains misfortune and coincidence of events, and why they happen to certain people but does is not necessarily used as the explanation for why an event took place
- They do not explain everything with witchcraft
- "Feminine Powers at Sea"
- Positive: naming boats after women in British royal navy, female figurehead, ships are mothers to protect, christening by ranked female (rite of passage)
- Negative: boat as enchantress, taboo for woman to be on board or in shipyard
- Mana, magic, and ritual trying to affect outcome. Can be individual, but there are also group rituals
- The Haka-Maori war dance used by NZ rugby team. Unites and intimidates and has been passed down
- Entrances are important for bonding, energy of players and fans, and psyching out the opponent
- "Baseball Magic"
- Specific for a purpose, helps with comfort or concentration
- Fettish is what Kotak calls mana
- Taboos lots of ones that are individual and also baseball wide
- Magic like incantations or curses (Great Bambino, the billygoat)
- This sort of stuff is more important for hitting and pitching than fielding because of the risk. Also pitching is critical