anatomy(4).txt

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anatomy(4).txt
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2010-05-24 14:42:26
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anatomy 2:21
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  1. (radiocarpal, joint capsule, radial and ulnar collateral) are ________ and (styloid process of both radius and ulna, carpal bones)are boney _________ that limits movements of the _________. A&M pg 485 Table 6.16
    • Ligaments
    • bony appositions
    • wrist
  2. 2. Identify the 3 bones that form the calvarium. A&M pg 492, 495 Figure 7.2 B
    Frontal, Parital, Occipital
  3. 3. Locate the 4 fontanels on a fetal skull. Reminder: fontanels allow the brain to grow. Lab Manual
    Anterior, Posterior, Mastoid and Sphenoid
  4. The MEDIAL Wall of the orbit is made of __________ (some frontal, lacrimal and spenoid)
    The medial wall (ethmoid, lacrimal, and frontal bones) is very thin. Its main component (the _________ _______ of the ethmoid) is papyraceous (paper-thin). At the junction of the medial wall with the roof, the
    anterior and posterior ethmoidal foramina transmit the nerves and
    arteries of the same name.
    Ethmoid

    orbital plate
  5. The Zygomatic bone (frontal process) and the _______ Wing of the Sphenoid wall the bones that form the ________ wall
    • greater
    • Lateral
  6. 4. Identify the bones that form the orbit: floor

    The floor ____________ (some _________,________) presents the
    infraorbital groove and canal for the nerve and artery___________. The inferior oblique muscle arises anteromedially, immediately
    lateral to the nasolacrimal canal.
    • maxilla
    • Floor: Maxilla (some: zygomatic,palatine)
  7. The ___________ nerve accompanies the ophthalmic artery.
    nasociliary
  8. ________________It is the mucous membrane that lines the posterior surface of the
    eyelids (palpebral _____________) and the anterior aspect of the globe
    (bulbar____________
    Conjunctiva
  9. In summary, the orbit communicates with the __________ cranial fossa (via the optic canal and superior orbital fissure), the infratemporal and pterygopalatine fossae ( via the inferior orbital fissure), the inferior meatus of the nose (via the nasolacrimal canal), the nasal ______ (via the anterior ethmoidal foramen), and the ______ ( via supraorbital and infraorbital foramina).
    • middle
    • cavity
    • face
  10. the orbit communicates with the inferior meatus
    of the nose (via the __________ ____________)
    nasalacrimal canal
  11. The central artery of the retina, complete obstruction of which results in blindness, is the most important branch of the ____________ artery
    ophthalmic
  12. the levator is supplied by the oculomotor nerve; the innervation of the _________ muscle is sympathetic.
    tarsal
  13. On looking downward and to the right, if the left pupil fails to descend, the left ________ oblique muscle is likely to be paralyzed
    superior
  14. Cranial nerves II, III, and VI and the nasociliary nerve (of cranial nerve V) enter the orbit within the _______ _________ _________
    common tendinous ring
  15. The abducent nerve (C.N. ________), which bends sharply across the petrous part of the temporal bone, is liable
    to damage from increased )___________ pressure.
    • VI
    • intracranial
  16. On looking upward and to the left, if the right pupil fails to ascend, the right _________ __________ muscle
    is most likely to be involved
    inferior oblique
  17. The ________ ganglion, which lies between the optic nerve and the lateral rectus muscle, is the
    peripheral relay station of the parasympathetic fibers to the eye
    cillary
  18. 4. Identify the bones that form the orbit: Identify the only intrinsic bone of the orbit?
    Roof?
    • a. Roof: Frontal bone
    • lacrimal?
  19. The optic canal lies in the posterior part of the
    roof, between the roots of the _________ _________ of the sphenoid bone. It transmits
    the optic nerve and ophthalmic artery from the ____________ cranial fossa. and transmits cranial
    nerves III, IV, and VI, the three branches of the ophthalmic nerve, and the ophthalmic veins
    • lesser wing
    • middle
  20. the inferior orbital fissure communicates with the infratemporal and
    pterygopalatine fossae and transmits the ___________ nerve
    zygomatic
  21. 5. How does the hyoid bone make a connection to the skull and or cervical vertebrae? A&M 556 Figure 7.33, 584 Figure 8.1, 587 Table 8.1, 595 Figure 8.5 B, 596 Figure 8.5, 601 Table 8.3
    To the skull, Styloid Process: stylohyoid muscle
  22. 6. _________nasal conchae is a separate bone from the remaining conchae are which are the processes of the _________ bone and they are the __________ conchae and the __________ conchae A&M 563-567, 565 Figure 7.39
    • inferior
    • Ethmoid
    • Superior
    • Middle
  23. 7. What opens beneath each concha?
    meatus
  24. 8. To what bone does the mandibular condyle articulate? A&M pg 546-547
    Temporal (inferiorly)
  25. 9.__________ lines or ridges on the skull that are produced by the pull (contraction) of muscles. A&M pg 494, 589 Table 8.2, 605 Table 8.4
    Nuchal
  26. . Be able to identify each opening (foramen) of the skull and what passes through these openings. A&M pg 495-498, 496-497 Table 7.1
    Rotundum: cn __ and _________ nerve
    CN V2 and Maxillary nerve
  27. identify each opening (foramen) of the skull and what passes through these openings
    Ovale: CN ____, _________ nerve, _________ _________ artery
    • V3
    • Mandibular
    • accessory meningeal
  28. identify each opening (foramen) of the skull and what passes through these openings
    Spinosum

    CN _____
    Menigial branch, ________ meningeal ______ and ________
    • : CN V3
    • meningial branch, Middle meningeal artery and vein
  29. identify each opening (foramen) of the skull and what passes through these openings:
    Lacerum
    :
    nothing
  30. identify each opening (foramen) of the skull and what passes through these openings
    Magnum:
    m_______
    m_______
    _______ arteries
    CN_____
    ________ veins
    ________/__________ spinal __________
    • Medulla
    • menengies
    • vertebral arteries
    • CNXI
    • dural veins
    • anterior/posterior spinal arteries
  31. identify each opening (foramen) of the skull and what passes through these openings
    Jugular Foramen:
    CN__, ___ , ___
    __________ _________ vein
    Inferior ___________ and ___________ sinuses
    meningeal branches
    of ____________ and ___________ arteries
    • CN IX, X, XI,
    • IJV,
    • inferior petrosal & sigmoid sinuses,
    • meningeal branches of pharyngeal and occipital arteries
  32. identify each opening (foramen) of the skull and what passes through these openings:
    Stylomastoid Foramen:

    CN ____
    CN VII
  33. **Carotid Canal:
    Internal Carotid
  34. identify each opening (foramen) of the skull and what passes through these openings
    **Hypoglossal Canal

    CN _____
    CN XII*
  35. identify each opening (foramen) of the skull and what passes through these openings
    *Optic Canal:
    CN____
    CN II
  36. 12. Be able to identify the points of articulation (joints) for the bones of the skull (reminder: some joints are immoveable). A&M pg 493-498
    4 sutures
    __________ fossa
  37. anterior posterior, mastoid, speniod
    mandibular fossa
  38. 14. Be able to identify and locate the ventricles of the brain. How are the ventricles connected?
    • Ventricles: Lateral, 3rd, 4th.
    • connected-The 3rd and 4th are connected via the Cerebral Aqueduct.
  39. The choroid plexus produce_________, and is found _________ A&M pg 509-511
    • CSF.
    • ventricles.
  40. 15. __________ _________ of the lacrimal system secretes lacrimal fluid (tears)
  41. Lacrimal glands secrete lacrimal fluid (tears).
  42. the ___________ __________ convey lacrimal fluid from the lacrimal glands to the __________ sac
    • Lacrimal ducts
    • conjunctival .
  43. Lacrimal _________ (L. small canals) each commencing at a lacrimal punctum (opening) on the lacrimal _________ near the medial angle of the eye, convey the lacrimal fluid from the lacrimal _______ to the lacrimal sac, the dilated superior part of the ________ duct
    conveys the lacrimal fluid to the _________ Cavity.
    • canaliculi
    • papilla
    • lake
    • nasolacrimal
    • nasal.
  44. • The __________-shaped lacrimal gland lies in the fossa for the lacrimal gland in the __________ part of each orbit.
    • almond
    • supralateral
  45. _________ __________ muscle of mastication contributes to protrusion, synergistic action, unilateral: grinding
  46. Medial Pterygoid:
  47. _________ __________ muscle of mastication is bilateral: Protracts mandible, depress chin, unilateral: swings jaw
    lateral pterygoid
  48. _____________and __________ elevates the mandible as the primary action of these muscles of mastication. A&M pg 539-546
    • Temporalis:
    • Masseter:
  49. 19. What is the primary attachment (insertion) of the muscles of facial expression What is their innervation?
    Innervation by CN VII (7)
  50. 20. What type of cut to the scalp would cause profuse bleeding (longitudinal or frontal)?
    Frontal
  51. the three salivary glands include the...
    parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands.
  52. Identify and locate the papillae and taste buds that are present on the tongue _________ papillae are
    large and flat topped; they lie directly anterior to the terminal groove
    surrounded by deep moat-like trenches, the walls of which are studded by taste buds; the ducts of serous lingual glands (of
    von Ebner) open into these trenches.
    valetae
  53. __________ papillae are small lateral folds of lingual __________ ; they are poorly developed in humans.
    • foliate
    • mucosa;
  54. Identify and locate the papillae and taste buds that are present on the tongue
    • Filiform papillae a
    are long, numerous, thread-like and scaly; they contain afferent nerve endings that are sensitive totouch.
  55. ____________ papillae are ____________-shaped and appear as pink or red spots; they are scattered
    among the filiform papillae but are most numerous at the ________and sides
    (margins) of the tongue.
    • Fungiform
    • mushroom-

    apex
  56. 23. ___________ is a dense layer of connective tissue, forms the external periosteum of the neurocranium A&M pg 498-499
    Pericranium
  57. 24. Be able to identify the primary vessels that form the arterial circle on the base of the brain (Circle of Willis). A&M pg 512-514
    • These come from the Vertebral Arteries then Basilar: Posterior
    • Cerebral, Posterior Communicating, Internal Carotid, Anterior Cerebral
    • and Anterior Communicating Arteries
  58. 26. Identify the area referred to as the ___________ and it forms an H shape of sutures and what bones form this area? A&M pg 493-494,539
    • Pterion:t
    • unites the frontal,
    • parietal, sphenoid (GW) and temporal bones
  59. 27. Identify the two areas of the nasal cavity? A&M pg 562-567
    Olfactory (smell) and Respiratory (breathing)
  60. Overproduction, obstruction or interference with CSF absorption that causes head enlargement causes ____________
    hydrocephalus
  61. 30. ___________ ___________ protrude into the venous sinuses of the brain, and allow CSF to exit the brain and enter the_______ ________
    • The arachnoid granulations
    • blood stream.
  62. 31.
    Be able to identify the 3 layers of the meninges. A&M pg 293-298
    Dura, Arachnoid and Pia
  63. 32. What is the general function of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system? A&M pg 35, 42-43,557, 638-639 Table 9.1 (Note if it states visceral it is parasympathetic/autonomic)See Table 9.1 pg 638-639
    ______________
    Anabolic, promotes normal function and conserving energy

    _____________ Catabolic, fight or flight
    • Parasympathetic:
    • Anabolic, promotes normal function and conserving energyS
    • ympathetic:
    • Catabolic, fight or flight
  64. 35. What is the origin of the phrenic nerve and where does it lie in the neck? A&M pg 594
    • Origin: CN III, CN IV, CN V: Cranial Nerves 3,4,5: Keep the man alive.
    • Descends with the Internal Jugular Veins
  65. 36. the ___________ _________'s function is a chemoreceptor, monitors the level of oxygen in the blood________ __________ and CN ___ and CN _____ intervate this.
    Carotid Body: Innervated by CN IX and CN X,
  66. 36. What is the function of the carotid sinus and what nerves supply thesestructures? A&M pg 597, 652
  67. Carotid Sinus: Innervated by CNIX and CN X,
    function: baroreceptor, reacts to changes in blood pressure
  68. 37. Identify the three layers of deep cervical viscera. A&M pg 608
    Endocrine, Respiratory and Alimentary
  69. 38. Define an endocrine organ.
    Where are these organs located in the head and neck? A&M pg 3,
    • Head: Pituitary, Pineal; Neck: Thyroid, Parathyroid
    • A system of glands, each of which secretes a type of hormone to regulate the body
  70. 39.
    Identify the cartilages of the larynx? Which cartilage forms a complete
    ring? A&M pg 6139
    cartilages in the Laryngeal Skeleton: Thyroid,Cricoid, Epiglottic, Arytenoid (paired), Corniculate (paired) & Cuneiform (paired)
  71. 40. The tracheal rings are incomplete posterior. What lies in this gap? A&M pg 614, 620
    Trachealis Muscle
  72. 41. Where does the trachea terminate and what structure(s) does it form? A&M pg
    73
    terminates at the level of the sternal angle, this is called the Primary Bronchi
  73. 42. Identify the three sets of tonsils and where they are located? WA&M pg 622-623
    Pharyngeal Tonsils :located in the mucos membrane of the roof and posterior wall of thenasopharynx


    Palatine Tonsils: lie in the tonsilar sinus between the palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches


    Tubal Tonsil: located in the submucosa pharynx near the pharyngeal oriface of the pharyngotympanic tube
  74. 42 which set of the three tonsils is called adenoids when infected?
    • Pharyngeal Tonsils (called adenoids when enlarged):
    • l
  75. 44. Where are the tarsal glands located? What is their function? A&M pg 526
    Embedded in the tarsal plates are tarsal glands, the lipid secretion of which lubricates the edges of the eyelids and prevents them from sticking together when they close. This secretion also forms a barrier that lacrimal fluid does not cross when produced in normal amounts. When production is excessive, it spills over the barrier onto the cheeks as tears.
  76. 45. What does the term ptosis mean? A&M pg 529 Blue Box
    Ptosis: to droop, in the case of an eye, the upper lid
  77. 46. What is the function and where is the common tendinous ring located? A&M pg
    532-535, 534 Table 7.6
    Function: Origin of the rectus muscles of the eye.

    Location: surrounding the optic canal and part of the superior orbital fissure
  78. 47. Be able to identify and give the innervation of the seven extra-occular muscles of the eye. A&M pg 532-535
    Levator Palpebrae Superioris
    innervated by CN III
  79. 47. Be able to identify and give the innervation of the seven extra-occular muscles of the eye. A&M pg 532-535 Superior Oblique
    innervated by CN IV
  80. 47. Be able to identify and give the innervation of the seven extra-occular muscles of the eye. A&M pg 532-535 Inferior Oblique
    innervated by CN III
  81. 47. Be able to identify and give the innervation of the seven extra-occular muscles of the eye. A&M pg 532-535
    Superior and Inferior Rectus
    innervated byCN III
  82. 47. Be able to identify and give the innervation of the seven extra-occular muscles of the eye. A&M pg 532-535 Medial and Lateral Rectus
    innervated by CN VI
  83. 49. a. Accessory structures of the eyeball.
    extraocular muscles of the orbit, bulbar fascia
  84. b. Eyeball layers and their subdivisions.
    • Fibrous layer (outer coat), consisting of the sclera andcornea.
    • Vascular layer (middle coat), consisting of the choroid, ciliary body, and iris.
    • Inner layer (inner coat), consisting of the retina, which has both optic and non-visual parts
  85. 47. Be able to identify and give the innervation of the seven extra-occular muscles of the eye. A&M pg 532-535

    ________ and _________ rectus is intervated by the _________ nerve (cn VI)

    hint: These abduct/aduct the eye
  86. 47. Be able to identify and give the innervation of the seven extra-occular muscles of the eye. A&M pg 532-535

    super and inferior ___________, is intervated by ______ nerve (cn___)
    rectus

    oculomotor

    3
  87. 47. Be able to identify and give the innervation of the seven extra-occular muscles of the eye. A&M pg 532-535

    ________ oblique is intervated by trochlear nerve (cn___)
    superior


    CN IV
  88. 47. Be able to identify and give the innervation of the seven extra-occular muscles of the eye. A&M pg 532-535

    lateral palebrae superioris is intervated by ___________ nerve
    oculomtor nerve
  89. 50. CN___, ____, and _____ is the nerve supply to the tympanic membrane. (Remember it has two sides). A&M pg 570,
    V, IX, X
  90. The mastoid air sinus communicates with ______ ear cavity? A&M pg 577 Blue Box
    Middle
  91. 52. In which bone of the skull is the internal ear located?
    A&M pg 573I

    the internal ear is located in the _______ part of the temporal bone of the skull
    Petrous
  92. 53.
    the __________ tube, serves as a connection between the tympanic cavity (middle ear) and the nasopharynx

    AKA? bonus
    • Auditory
    • aka Pharyngotympanic Tube or Eustachian Tube
  93. 54. the _________ structure of the ear is the receptor of auditory stimuli. A&M pg 574
    Cochlea
  94. a branch of cranial nerve _____ (Chorda Tympani) passes through the middle ear cavity.
    (7)
  95. 56. What are the parts of the internal ear and what are their functions? A&M pg 573-578
    __________ organ of the internal ear is important for sound and __________.
    Contained with in the Bony Labyrinth: ________ (sound)and Semicircular Canal and ______ (balance
    • Vestibulocochlear
    • balance.
  96. Cochlea
    Duct
  97. 57. What are the names of the three middle ear bones? In what order are
    they found from lateral to medial? A&M pg 571-573

    M.I.S
    Mallus, Incus and Stapes, found in that order lateral to medial
  98. 58. Motion sickness results mainly from discordance between _______ and the _________ stimuli A&M pg 578 Blue
    Box
    Vestibular and Visual
  99. 59. Identify the first 2 of the five layers of the scalp. A&M498-499
    s
    c
    • Remember:
    • S skin
    • C Connective Tissue
  100. 59. Identify the last 3 layers of the scalp
    a.
    l.
    p
    A Aponeurosis L Loose Connective Tissue P periosteum

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