Sociology 220 CH 2

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oathkeepr
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205744
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Sociology 220 CH 2
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2013-03-07 18:29:00
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Sociology 220
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Sociology Chapter 2 midterm notecards
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  1.  Five Basic Research Methods
    • Survey
    • Observation (aka Direct Observation)Experiment
    • Case Study (aka Archival Research)
    • Secondary Data Analysis
  2.  Research Method - Survey
    • Total Population Survey: all research subjects get the research instrument
    • Sample Survey: only a subset gets the research instrument
    • ...either an interview or questionnaire
  3. Research Method - Observation(aka Direct Observation)
    • Participant Observation: researcher participates in social setting of the research
    • Unobtrusive Measures: researcher intrudes as little as possible in the social setting of the research
  4. Research Method - Experiment
    Field Experiment: in a natural settingControlled Experiment: in a laboratory...includes an experimental group and a control group.
  5.  Experiment
    • Experimental Group: receives treatment
    • Control Group: does not receive treatment
  6. Research Method - Case Study(aka Archival Research)
    the researcher looks at one person, one group, or one organization in-depth
  7. Research Method - Secondary Data Analysis
    the researcher reanalyzes data collected by another researcher and writes a research report
  8. Four Basic Research Techniques of Sociology
    • Questionnaire
    • Interview
    • Observation
    • Documents
  9. Basic Research Technique - Questionnaire
    • Open question: an individual is free to respond openly; categories are not present
    • Closed question: multiple choice categories are provided
  10.  Basic Research Technique - Interview
    • Structured: Relative extensive list of questions prepared for the interview
    • Unstructured: No extensive list of questions prepared for the interview
  11. Basic Research Technique - Observation
    • Field notes: observer takes written notes of what is observed
    • The observer may also record voice or video.
  12.  Basic Research Technique - Documents
    Autobiography and biographyGovernment reports, scholarly books (with footnotes), and scholarly articles.
  13.  Steps in the Research Method
    • Decide on the Problem
    • Review the Literature
    • Formulate the Research Question(s)
    • Select one of the 5 Methods
    • Analyze the Data
  14. Hypothesis
    Refers to a statement about a relationship between two or more variables
  15. Variables
    Refers to characteristics of a person or a group that can vary from one case to another e.g., race, sex, social class, religion, age
  16.  What are the two types of variables?
    Dependent and Independent Variables 
  17. Dependent Variables
    • Variable which the researcher is trying to explain in the hypothesis
    • (the variable that can be measured)
  18.  Independent Variable
    Variable which causes a change in another variable
  19.  Empirical Study
    • Refers to a research study which has been conducted in a careful and systematic manner and uses methodology that can be replicated by another researcher
    • e.g., empirical study conducted by Dr. Cromartie at USF
  20. Empirical Data
    • Refers to data which has been collected through an empirical study
    • e.g., empirical data collected by Dr. Cromartie at USF for a doctoral dissertation

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