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- Refers to all the modes of thought, behavior, and production that are handed down from one generation to the next by means of communicative interaction rather than by genetic transmission
- e.g., people pass down values and norms from one generation to the next
Robert Bierstedt's Three Dimensions of Culture
- Material Culture
Dimension of Culture - Ideas
- Refers to ways of thinking that organize human consciousness
- e.g., the types of ideas people pass from one generation to another include values, folklore, and scientific knowledge
Dimension of Culture - Norms
- Refers to specific rules of behavior They are ways of doing or carrying out ideas
- e.g., the norm is what a person does wherein the idea is what a person thinks
- (that is, there is the value that one should get as much education as possible and the norm that one should study before a test)
Dimension of Culture - Material Culture
- Refers to patterns of possessing and using the products of culture
- e.g., material culture includes things that we can see and touch that are passed down from one generation to the next including ink pens, newspapers, etc.
- Refers to socially shared ideas about what is right or wrong They are used to support or justify norms
- e.g., the idea that education is important
- Refers to norms that are written by specialists, collected in codes or manuals of behavior, and interpreted and applied by other specialists
- e.g., there is a law that minors have to attend school at least until they are 16 years old
- Refer to sets or systems of ideas and norms
- They comprise two dimensions of culture which include ideas in the form of values and norms
- e.g., Max Weber's ideology of the Protestant ethic which includes frugality, abstinence, and salvation
- Refer to the products and the norms for using them that are found in a given culture
- They comprise two dimensions of culture which include material culture in the form of things and norms
- e.g., cell phones and their proper use; ink pens and their proper use
- Refers to the set of rules and understandings that control the behavior of individuals and groups in a particular culture
- e.g., there are laws and regulations in place to control the behavior of people regarding driving (that is, people get a driver's license and car insurance)
- Refers to the array of norms that permit a society to achieve relatively peaceful social control
- e.g., there are laws and regulations in place to control the behavior of people regarding guns (that is, people can purchase a gun but there are restrictions on how they can use it and where they can take it)
- Refers to rewards and punishments for abiding by or violating norms
- e.g., rewards can range from a smile to the Nobel Peace Prize won by Martin Luther King and Jane Addams; punishments can range from a raised eyebrow to the death penalty)
- Refers to strongly sanctioned norms They are norms that people consider vital to the continuation of human groups and societies
- e.g., people who violate mores like the prohibition against murder and rape will be strongly punished
- Refers to weakly sanctioned norms They are norms that people do not consider vital to the continuation of human groups and societies
- e.g., people who violate folkways like a dress code in nightclubs will not be strongly punished (that is, they might be asked or told to leave but will not be sent to jail or prison)
- Refers to the tendency to judge other cultures as inferior to one's own
- Ethnocentric people have problems respecting other cultures
- e.g., people who take the position that their culture is superior to other cultures is ethnocentric; people who take the position that their race is superior to other races is a racist (that is, ethnocentrism is based on culture and racism is based on race)
- Refers to the recognition that all cultures develop their own ways of dealing with the specific demands of their environments
- The ability of people to suspend judgment about other cultures instead of judging them by the standards of outsiders
- e.g., the view that all cultures are valuable, but different
- Refers to the set of values and norms that support male dominance and the subordination of women
- e.g., some cultures have religions which women from holding certain offices, especially serving as ministers, priests, etc.
- Refers to dominance or undue power or influence
- e.g., some countries are hegemonic and seek to dominate other countries through cultural imperialism or economic imperialism
- e.g., WASPS (White Anglo Saxon Protestants) have hegemony over the economic system and the political system of the USA
What are the two types of hegemony?
- Cultural Imperialism
- Economic Imperialism
- Refers to the imposition of a new culture on a conquered people
- e.g., the imposition of English culture on Muskogee Indians in Georgia; the imposition of Spanish culture on Indians in Mexico and Portuguese culture on Indians in Brazil
- Refers to the imposition of a new economic system on a conquered people
- e.g., the imposition of capitalism on Muskogee Indians in Georgia; the imposition of capitalism on Ohlone Indians in California
Fernand Braudel's Typology of Cultural Contact
Typology of Cultural Contact - Acculturation
- Refers to the process by which culturally distinct groups in a society exchange ideas, norms, and material culture
- e.g., Black people eat the grits of American Indians; American Indians eat the Chinese food of Asian people; Asian people eat the Italian food of White people; White people eat the Soul Food of Black people
Typology of Cultural Contact - Assimilation
- Refers to the process by the process by which a culturally distinct group in a society is forced or volunteers to give up its unique culture to get educational slots, jobs or contracts.
- The two types of assimilation include forced assimilation and voluntary assimilation
- e.g., Black people faced forced assimilation through slavery; American Indians faced forced assimilation in Indian boarding schools like Carlyle
Typology of Cultural Contact - Accommodation
- Refers to the process by the process by which a conquered culturally distinct group adapts to the hegemony
- e.g., the American Indian sociologist Russell Thornton has recommended that American Indians adapt to the power of WASPS by becoming bicultural and mastering English as the language of commerce and instruction while maintaining traditional American Indian languages
Refers to a group of people who hold many of the values of the larger culture but also holds certain beliefs, values, or norms that set them apart from that culture e.g., WASPs people tend to use the term subculture to refer to the cultures of racial minorities and ethnic minorities as subcultures
- Refers to a social group of Gullah-speaking Maroons (and their descendants) who joined the Seminole Nation as partisans during their three wars against the USA in the 19th century.
- Every Geechee is a Gullah, but every Gullah is not a Geechee
- Refers to antebellum Black men, women, and children who were born in Africa and came to the USA in bondage and the language they brought with them.
- Gullah people primarily came from the following areas: Senegal (Wolof); Sierra Leone (Mende); Nigeria (Ibo, Ibibio); and Angola (Mbundu). The term is also used to refer to the pidgin or Creole language the Gullah people brought with them from Africa as a mixture of Pidgin English, African languages (Wolof, Mende, Ibo, Ibibio, Mbundu, etc.), American Indian words, and Spanish words.
- Gullah people played a major role in developing the antebellum music known as The Spirituals or The Sorrow Songs.