Sociology 220 CH 4

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oathkeepr
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Sociology 220 CH 4
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2013-03-07 19:17:16
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Sociology 220
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Sociology Chapter 4 midterm notecards
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  1. Society
    • Refers to a population that is organized to carry out the major functions of life, including reproduction, sustenance, shelter, and defense
    • It is also a macro level concept or a middle level concept that can be used to talk about a whole country, a national minority group; or one organization
    • e.g., the USA; the Amish; the Society of Black Students at USF; the Navy Relief Society (Konblum, 2012, p. 75)
  2.  Social Structure
    • Refers to the recurring patterns of behavior that people create through their interactions, their exchange of information, and their relationships
    • It is also a web or network of social relationships
    • e.g., a family; a peer group (Kornblum, 2012, p. 75)
  3.  Group
    • Refers to any collection of people who interact on the basis of shared expectations regarding one another's behavior
    • It also consists of at least two people
    • e.g., a discussion group; a Bible study class; a local union (Kornblum, 2012, p. 75)
  4.  Status
    • Refers to a socially defined position in a group
    • e.g., college student, a college counselor, a college professor, a college department chairperson, a college dean, a college president, etc. (Kornblum, 2012, p. 75)
  5.  Role
    • Refers to the way a society defines how a person is to behave in a particular status
    • e.g. the role of the college student is to learn the course material; the role of the college professor is to teach the course material (Kornblum, 2012, p. 75)
  6. Role Expectations
    • Refers to a society’s expectations about how a role should be performed, together with the person's perceptions of what is required in performing that role
    • e.g., the expectations we have of a father in a family structure; the expectations we have of a mother in a family structure; the expectations we have of a minor in a family structure  (Sullivan, 2012, p. 75)
  7. Institution
    • Refers to a more or less stable structure of statuses and roles devoted to meeting the basic needs of people in a society
    • e.g., a family is the primary institution in a society devoted to raising children; a military is a the primary institution devoted to providing national defense (Kornblum, 2012, p. 75)
  8.  Capitalism
    • Refers to an economic system for organizing the production of goods and services that is based on markets, private property, and the business firm or company
    • It is also an economic system based on private profit as the primary motive
    • e.g., the economic system of the USA, Nigeria, and the Philippines (Kornblum, 2012, p. 86)
  9. Postindustrial society
    • Refers to a society based upon people working in the service industry, including retail stores and office bureaucracies
    • e.g., the USA (Kornblum, 2012, p. 87)
  10.  Gemeinschaft
    • Refers to a society based upon people working in the agriculture industry, including large and small farms
    • It is a society also characterized by people having the close, personal relationships of small groups and communities
    • e.g., the USA in 1860 when some 90% of the population worked in agriculture (Kornblum, 2012, p. 89)
  11. Gesellschaft
    • Refers to a society based upon people working in the manufacturing industry, including large and small factories
    • It is a society also characterized by people having well-organized but impersonal relationships
    • e.g., the USA in 1960 when only 8% of the population worked in agriculture (Kornblum, 2012, p. 89)
  12.  Primary Groups
    Refers to a group that is characterized by intimate face-to-face association and cooperation e.g., a family; a peer group (Kornblum, 2012, p. 89)
  13. Secondary Groups
    • Refers to a group whose members have a shared goal or purpose but are not bound by strong emotional ties It is always based on a written or unwritten contract
    • e.g., a classroom of college students; a work unit of eight social workers (Kornblum, 2012, p. 89)
  14.  Role Conflict
    • Refers to conflict that occurs when a person must violate the expectations associated with one role in order to perform another role well
    • e.g., a person is experiencing conflict in a role as a college student, employee, spouse, parent, son or daughter, sibling, church member, PTA member (Kornblum, 2012, p. 89)
  15.  Role Strain
    • Refers to conflict that occurs when the expectations associated with a single role are contradictory
    • It also refers to a situation wherein a person experiences conflicting demands in an existing role or cannot meet the new demands of a new one
    • e.g., a person is experiencing conflict in a role as a college student taking eight units and cannot devote 24 hours each week to out-of-class assignments; a person is experiencing conflict in a role as a mother with multiple infants (Kornblum, 2012, p. 91)
  16.  Ascribed status
    • Refers to a position or rank that is assigned to a person at birth and cannot be easily changed
    • It is also a quality a person is born with
    • e.g., race; gender (Kornblum, 2012, p. 91)
  17.  Master Status
    • Refers to the status that takes precedence over all of a person's other statuses
    • e.g., W. E. B. Du Bois found that his racial status as a Black man kept him from getting a job at White universities or colleges even though he had educational attainment status in the form of a Ph.D. from Harvard; Jane Addams found that her gender status as a woman kept her being able to vote before 1920 even though her racial status was White (Kornblum, 2012, p. 89)
  18.  State
    • Refers to a society's set of political structures
    • It also includes the institutions of the political system that determines who gets what, when, and how
    • e.g., the state includes the three branches of government known as the executive branch, legislative branch, and judicial branch (Kornblum, 2012, p. 92)
  19. Nation-state
    • Refers to a the largest territory within which a society's political institutions can operate without having to face challenges to their sovereignty
    • It is also a number word for country, nation, and whole society
    • e.g., the USA, Mexico, China, etc. (Kornblum, 2012, p. 92)

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