Med Term Ch 7

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  1. alveol/o
    alveolus ( air sacs )
  2. bronch/o , bronchi/o
    bronchus ( airway )
  3. bronchiol/o
    bronchiole ( little airways )
  4. capn/o , carb/o
    carbon dioxide
  5. laryng/o
    larynx ( voice box )
  6. lob/o
    lobe ( a portion )
  7. nas/o , rhin/o
  8. or/o
  9. ox/o
  10. palat/o
  11. pharyng/o
    pharynx ( throat )
  12. phren/o
    diaphragm ( also mind? )
  13. pleur/o
    pleura ( linings of lungs )
  14. pneumo/o , pneumon/o
    air or lung
  15. pulmon/o
    lung ( pulmonary - lung )
  16. sinus/o
    sinus ( cavity )
  17. spir/o (combining form) , -pnea (suffix)
  18. thorac/o , pector/o , steth/o
  19. tonsill/o
  20. trache/o
  21. uvul/o
  22. nose
    • Structure that warms, moistens, and filters air as it enters the respiratory tract
    • also houses olfactory receptors for the sense of smell
  23. sinuses
    air-filled spaces in the skull that open into the nasal cavity
  24. palate
    • roof of the mouth
    • partition between the oral and nasal cavities
    • divided into hard palate ( front of mouth ) and soft palate ( back of mouth )
  25. hard palate
    bony anterior (front) portion of palate
  26. soft palate
    muscular posterior (back) portion of mouth
  27. pharynx
    • throat
    • pasageway for food to the esophagus and for air to larynx
  28. nasopharynx
    part of the pharynx directly behind the nose
  29. oropharynx
    central portion of the pharynx between the roof of the mouth and the upper edge of the epiglottis
  30. laryngopharynx
    • lower part of pharynx, just below the oropharyngeal opening into the larynx and esophagus
    • below the oropharynx, where the larynx is
  31. tonsils
    • oval lymphatic tissues on each side of the pharynx that filter air to protect the body from bacterial invasion
    • also called palatine tonsils
  32. adenoid
    • lymphatic tissue on the back of the pharynx behind the nose
    • also called pharyngeal tonsil
  33. uvula
    • small projection hanging dfrom the back middle edge of the soft palat
    • named for its grape-like shape
    • the hangy down thing at the back of your mouth
  34. larynx
    • voice box
    • passageway for air moving from the pharynx to the trache
    • contains the vocal cords
  35. glottis
    opening between the vocal cords in the larynx
  36. epiglottis
    a lid-like structure that covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering the airway
  37. trachea
    • windpipe
    • passageway for air from the larynx to the area of the carina, where it splits into the right and left main bronchi
  38. bronchial tree
    branched airways that lead from the trachea to the microscopic air sacs called alveoli
  39. right bronchus and left bronchus
    two primary airways branching from the area of the carina into the lungs
  40. bronchioles
    progressively smaller tubular branches of the airways
  41. alveoli
    thin-walled microscopic air sacs that exchange gases
  42. lungs
    • two spongy organs in the thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphragm and rib cage
    • responsible for respiration
  43. lobes
    subdivisions of the lungs, with two on the left and three on the right
  44. pleura
    • membranes enclosing the lungs
    • set of two membranes
    • visceral pleura is the inner-most lining laying against the lung itself
    • parietal pleura is the outer-most lining laying against the thoracic cavity
  45. pleural cavity
    • space between the two pleurae
    • note, this is NOT the same as chest cavity or thoracic cavity as is sometimes suggested
  46. diaphragm
    muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity and that moves upwards and downward to aid respiration
  47. mediastiunm
    partition that separates the thorax into two compartments (one which contains R lung and one which contains L lung), and encloses the heart, trachea, esophagus, and thymus gland
  48. mucous membranes
    thin sheets of tissue that line respiratory passages and secrete mucus, a viscid (sticky) fluid
  49. cilia
    hair-like processes from the surface of epithelial cells, such as those in the bronchi, which move mucous cell secretions upward
  50. parenchyma
    functional tissues of any organ, such as the tissues of the bronchioles, alveoli, ducts, and sacs, that perform respiration
  51. eupnea
    normal breathing
  52. bradypnea
    slow breathing
  53. tachypnea
    fast breathing
  54. hypopnea
    shallow breathing
  55. hyperpner
    deep breathing
  56. dyspnea
    difficulty breathing
  57. apnea
    inability to breath
  58. orthopnea
    ability to breath, only in an upright position
  59. Cheyne-Stokes respiration
    pattern of breathing characterized by a gradual increase of depth and, sometimes, in rate to a maximum level, followed by a decrease, resulting in apnea
  60. crackles , rales
    • popping sounds heard on auscultation of the lung when air enters diseased airways and alveoli
    • occurs in disorders such as bronchiectasis or atelectasis
  61. wheezes , rhonchi
    • high-pitched, musical sounds heard on auscultation of the lung as air flows through ta narrowed airway
    • occurs in disorders such as asthma or emphymsema
  62. stridor
    high-pitched, crowning sound that occurs with an obstruction in the upper airway ( trachea or larynx )
  63. caseous necrosis
    • degeneration and death of tissue with a cheese-like appearance
    • eww
  64. cyanosis
    bluish coloration of the skin caused by a deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
  65. dysphonia
  66. epistaxis
  67. expectoration
    coughing up and spitting out of material from the lungs
  68. sputum
    material expelled from the lungs by coughing
  69. hemoptysis
    • coughing up and spitting out blood that originates in the lungs
    • ptysis = to spit
  70. hypercapnia , hypercarbia
    excessive level of carbon dioxide in the blood
  71. hyperventilation
    excessive movement of air into and out of the lungs, causing hypocapnia
  72. hypocapnia , hypocarbia
    deficient level of carbon dioxide in the blood
  73. hypoventilation
    deficient movement of air into and out of the lungs, causing hypercapnia
  74. hypoxemia
    deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
  75. hypoxia
    deficient amount of oxygen in tissue cells
  76. obstructive lung disorder
    condition blocking the flow of air moving out of the lungs
  77. restrictive lung disorder
    condition limiting the intake of air into the lungs
  78. pulmonary edema
    fluid filling the spaces around the alveoli and, eventually, flooding into the alveoli
  79. pulmonary infiltrate
    density on an x-ray image representing the consolidation of matter within the air spaces of the lungs, usually resulting from an inflammatory process
  80. rhinorrhea
    • thin, watery discharge from nose
    • runny nose
  81. asthma
    • obstructive pulmonary disease caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of the mucous membrane
    • characterized by paroxysmal (sudden, periodic) attacks of wheezing, dyspnea, and cough
  82. atelectasis
    • collapse of lung tissue (alveoli)
    • atele = imperfect
    • -ectasis = expansion or dilation
  83. bronchiectasis
    abnormal dilation of the bronch with accumulation of mucus
  84. bronchitis
    inflammation of the bronchi
  85. bronchogenic carcinoma
    • lung cancer
    • cancer originating in the bronchi
  86. bronchospasm
    constriction of bronchi cause by spasm (involuntary contraction) of the peribronchial smooth muscle
  87. emphysema
    obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by overexpansion of the alveoli with air and destructive changes in their walls, resulting in loss of lung elasticity and gas exchange
  88. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
    permanent, destructive pulmonary disorder that is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema
  89. cystic fibrosis
    • inherited condition of exocrine gland malfunction causing secretion of abnormally thick, viscous (sticky) mucus that obstructs passageways within the body, commonly affecting the lungs and digestive tract
    • mucus that obstructs the airways leads to infection, inflammation and damage of lung tisue
  90. laryngitis
    inflammation of the larynx
  91. laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB) , croup
    • inflammation of the upper airways with swelling
    • creates a funnel-shaped elongation of tissue causing a distinct "seal bark" cough
  92. laryngospasm
    spasm of the laryngeal muscles, causing a constriction
  93. nasal polyposis
    • presence of numerous polyps in the nose
    • a polyp is a tumor on a stalk
  94. pharyngitis
    inflammation of the pharynx
  95. pleural effusion
    accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity
  96. epymea / pyothorax
    accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity
  97. hemothorax
    blood in the pleural cavity
  98. pleuritis / pleurisy
    inflammation of the pleura
  99. pneumoconiosis
    chronic restrictive pulmonary disease, resulting form prolonged inhalation of fine dusts such as coal, asbestos (asbestosis), or silicone (silicosis)
  100. pneumonia
    inflammation of the lung resulting from infection by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, or from aspiration of chemicals
  101. pneumocystisis pneumonia
    pneumonia caused by the Pneumocystis carinii organism, a common opportunistic infection in those who are positive for the HIV virus
  102. pnemothorax
    air in the pleural cavity by a puncture of the lung or chest wall
  103. pneumohemothorax
    air and blood in the pleural cavity
  104. pneumonitis
    inflammation of the lung, often caused by hypersenskitivity to chemicals or dusts
  105. pulmonary embolism (PE)
    occlusion in the pulmonary circulation, most often caused by a blood clot
  106. pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)
    • disease caused by the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lungs
    • characterized by the formation of tubercles, inflammation, and necrotizing caseous lesions (caseous necrosis)
  107. sleep apnea
    periods of breathing cessation (10seconds or more), that occur during sleep, often resulting in snoring
  108. tonsillitis
    acute or chronic inflammation of the tonsils
  109. upper respiratory infection (URI)
    infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract involving the nasal passages, pharynx, and bronchi
Card Set:
Med Term Ch 7
2013-03-08 07:31:57
respiratory system medical terminology

respiratory system medical terminology
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