nervous system part 4

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chelsearose91
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205773
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nervous system part 4
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2013-03-07 23:16:35
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diseases diagnostic tests
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human body
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  1. what is electroencephalography?
    recording of electrical activity of cerebral cortex

    electrodes placed on heart to record electrical activity that produce brain waves
  2. what test diagnoses sleep disorders, tumors, epilepsy, and brain diseases?
    electroencephalography
  3. what does an electromyography test?
    measures electrical signals in muscle at rest, asses nerve damage at resting.

    its inserted into muscle to record its action potential
  4. what does a nerve conduction velocity measure?
    how fast an impulse travels through a nerve, done with an EMGA

    records nerve's action potential
  5. what does an MRI test?
    image of nervous system unless contraindicated, if it is proceed to an CT scan
  6. what is a lumbar puncture?
    needle inserted betwwen 3rd n 4th lumbar vertebrae

    spinal tap

    csf is withdrawn

    relieves pressure of accumulating CSF

    can install medication "epideral"

    can insert radiopaque dye for an x-ray (myelography)
  7. what is a myelography?
    radioplague injected in lumbar puncture for an xray
  8. what is paralysis?
    loss of motor and sensory function when communication with brain is altered
  9. pareisis paralysis is partial or complete paralysis?
    partial
  10. paralysis is partial or complete paralysis?
    complete
  11. spastic means what in terms ofparalysis?
    increased muscle tension and overactive reflexes
  12. flaccid in terms of paralysis means?
    decreased muscle tension and diminished reflexes
  13. what is the etiology of paralysis?
    spinal cord, nerve, or brain injury
  14. what is quadriplegic paralysis?
    all 4 limbs paralyzed
  15. what is paraplegia paralysis?
    lower limbs paralyzed
  16. what is hemiplegia paralysis?
    one side or half of the body is paralyzed
  17. what is the diagnosis of paralysis?
    neurological assessment, MRI, CT, myelography
  18. herniated disk's description is?
    inner material of intervertebral disk protruded outwards towards spinal cord compressing nerves

    "slipped disk"

    ruptured disk
  19. what causes a herniated disk?
    • spinal trauma,
    • straining of lifting
    • intervertebral joint degeneration
  20. what are signs of a herniated disk?
    • back pain that worsens by movements,
    • numbness
    • weakness
    • sciatica
  21. how do you diagnose a herniated disk?
    • spinal x-ray, MRI
    • CT,
    • myelography
  22. what is the treatment for a herniated disk?
    • rest
    • PT
    • NSAIDS
    • analgesics, muscle relaxants
    • steroid injections, surgery
  23. what is peripheral neuritis
    • degeneration of the nerves,
    • "multiple, poly, peripheral"
  24. what causes peripheral neuritis?
    • nerve damage, trauma
    • infection like deer ticks(lyme disease)
    • chickenpox, shingles, mono, hepatitis c, HIV
    • metabolic disease
    • toxins
    • vitamin deficiency, b12
    • autoimmune disease, lupus, RA Guillain-Barre syndrome
  25. what are the signs of peripheral neuritis?
    • pain, numbness, tingling
    • loss of sensation, muscular weakness
    • loss of autonomic functions (bp, heart rate, digestion, bladder function)
  26. how do you diagnose peripheral neuritis?
    • nerve conduction velocity,
    • electromyography
  27. what is the treatment of peripheral neuritis?
    supportive, elimination of causative factors
  28. what is herpes zoster? (shingles)
    viral infection along course of nerve that causes painful rash
  29. what causes herpes zoster (Shingles)
    reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (chicken pox),
  30. what are signs of herpes zoster (Shingles)?
    • unilateral pain, tingling,
    • burning followed by eruption of rash

    takes trace of the nerve
  31. how do you diagnose herpes zoster (Shingles)?
    clinical
  32. how do you treat herpes zoster (shingles)?
    antivirals

    • acyclovir (Zovirax)
    • famciclovir (Famvir)
    • valacyclovir (Valltrex)
  33. what is bell's palsy?
    inflammation/compression of the 7th cranial nerve (facial)

    causing paralysis of muscles on one side
  34. what is the prognosis of herpes zoster (shingles)
    lasts a few weeks

    doesn't reoccur

    pain may persist indefinitely
  35. what causes bell's palsy?
    viral infection

    • HSV
    • EBV
  36. what are signs of bell's palsy?
    facial weakness, drooping of mouth, drooling

    diminished sense of taste, pain in jaw/ear

    excessive tearing, eyes rolls upward when attempting to close
  37. how do you diagnose bell's palsy?
    clinical

    rule out CVA
  38. how do you teat bell's palsy?
    antivirals, analgesics

    corticosteroids, eye patching
  39. what is the prognosis of bell's palsy?
    • good,
    • spontaneous remission
    • w/I eight weeks
  40. what is guilain-barre syndrome?
    acute, rapidly progressing autoimmune disorder (attacks myelin on peripheral nerves)

    RARE
  41. what causes Guillain-Barre syndrome?
    autoimmune following viral infection or immunization

    affects young people
  42. what are sings of Guillain-Barre syndrome?
    • sudden onset of bilateral muscle weakness, numbness,
    • tingling begins in legs and ascending upwards
    • loss of deep tendon reflexes, paralysis

    respiratory muscles
  43. how do you diagnose Guillain-Barre syndrome?
    • clinical, nerve conduction velocity,
    • electromyography indicating demyelination and slowed conduction
    • CSF analysis shows increase protein
  44. how do you treat Guillain-Barre syndrome?
    • plasmaphersis (removes harmful plasma components)
    • high dose immunoglobulin medications
    • mechanical ventilation
  45. how is the prognosis of guillian-barre syndrome?
    • most recover
    • have residual weakness indefinitely
    • can be fatal
  46. what is spina bifida?
    • neural tube birth defect
    • neural tube becomes brain, spinal cord, meninges

    bones of spine do not close correctly
  47. occulta spina bifida?
    • mild,
    • bones of psinde do not close
    • meninges/spinal cord do not protrude
    • skin covers defect, hair, dimpling
  48. meningocele spina bifida?
    meninges protrude between vertebrae

    requires surgery
  49. myelominingocele spina bifida?
    meninges/spinal cord protrude forming sac

    • lack of bladder/bowel control, lack of sensation
    • paralysis of legs, hydrocephalus,
    • risk of infection,
    • requires surgery
  50. what causes spina bifida?
    • genetic
    • lack of folic acid
    • maternal viral infection
    • maternal radiation exposure
  51. how do you diagnose spina bifida?
    prenatal- blood test has triple/quadruple screen showing high levels of alpha fetoprotein, sonogram, amniocentesis

    postnatal- clinical, MRI, ultrasound, CT
  52. how do you treat spina bifida?
    • surgery,
    • shunt
  53. how do you prevent spina bifida?
    folic acid supplement before/during pregnancy
  54. what is hydrocephalus?
    CSF accumulates causing compression/swelling of brain
  55. what causes hydrocephalus?
    • fetal infection/development abnormalities
    • bleeding in brain, head injury,
    • brain/spinal tumor
    • myelomeningocele
  56. what are sings of hydrocephalus?
    • increase head diameter, tight scalp w/ prominent veins,
    • high pitches shrill cry, bulging fontannels
    • irritability, seizures, sleepiness, sunsetting eyes
    • developmental delays
  57. how do you diagnose hydrocephalus?
    • utero- ultrasound,
    • after birth- head circumference, MRI, CT
  58. how do you treat hydrocephalus?
    • shunt- tube rom ventricle into peritoneal cavity or right atrium
    • drains extra CSF
  59. what is meningitis?
    inflammation of meninges
  60. what causes meningitis?
    • viral- more common
    • bacterial- less common, more severe
  61. what are sings of meningitis?
    • sever HA, fever, rigidity,
    • photophobia, bulging fontanels,
    • vomiting, seizures, altered LOC
  62. how do you diagnose mengitis?
    evaluation of CSF after lumbar puncture

    increased protein && WBC
  63. how do you treat meningitis?
    • antivrals
    • hospitalization w/ aggressive administration of IV antibiotics
  64. what is the prognosis of meningitis?
    • fata in infacts/elderly
    • lasting neurological damage
    • loss of hearing, vision, m
    • mental retardation, epilepsy
  65. how do you prevent meningitis?
    • vaccination
    • (Hib, pneumococcal)
  66. what is encephalitis?
    • inflammation/swelling of brain
    • can cause intervertebral hemorrhage/brain damage
  67. what causes encephalitis?
    • viral- more common
    • bacterial- less common, more severe
  68. what are signs of encephalitis?
    • sever headache, fever,
    • lethargy, irritability, increased in ICP, confusion
  69. how do you diagnose encephalitis?
    • EEG, MRI
    • lumbar puncture (elevated CSF, ICP)
    • ICP- intercranial puncture
  70. how do you treat encephalitis?
    • antivirals
    • hospitalization w/ aggressive administration of IV antibiotics

    • anti-convulsants; prevent seizures
    • corticosteroids; reduce swelling
    • sedatives¬† && analgesics
  71. how is the prognosis of encephalitis?
    • can be fata in infants/elderly
    • lasting neurological dmage
    • loss of hearing, vision,
    • mental retardation,
    • epilepsy
  72. how do you prevent encephalitis?
    • vaccinations
    • MMR, varicella,
    • use of insect repellent

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