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(bone structure) 2 things bone structure allow for?
-provides strength to support the body
-allows for flexibility
(bone structure) what percentage of minerals provide the hardness of bone?
(bone structure) What percent of oragnic structures provide bones for strength, durability, and lfiexibility?
What is collagen?
fibrous protein in bone tissue
What are the two types of bone tissue?
-cortical bone (compact bone)
-trabecular bone (spongy bone)
(2 types of bone tissue) Cortical bone (2)
-very dense tissue making up 80% of the skeleton
(2 types of bone tissue) Trabecular bone (4)
-scaffolding on the inside of bones
-supports cortical bone
-makes up 20% of the skeleton
What 3 processes do bones go through to develop?
(processes for bone develop) Bone growth (3)
-increase in bone size
-completed by age 14 in girls
-completed by age 17 in boys
(processes for bone develop) Bone modeling (2)
-shaping of bone
-completed by early adulthood
(processes for bone develop) Bone remodeling
-reshaping of bone
-continuous remodeling that continues throughout life span
What two processes happen for bone remodeling?
- *breaking surface of bones
-formation of new bone
(processes for bone remodeling) What is resorption?
- surface of bones is broken down
- *by osteoclasts
(processes for bone develop)(resorbtion) Osteoclasts
cells that erode the surface of bones
(processes for bone develop) How does formation of new bone occur? (2)
- by cells called osteoblasts
- *they produce the collagen-containing component of bone
When is peak bone density reached?
before age 30
When does bone density start to decrease? and why?
after age 40 because the resorption exceeds new bone formation
Which mineral is tthe most abunsdant in the body?
4 functions of calcium
-form and maintain bones and teeth
-assists with acid-base balance
-transmission of nerve impulses
-assist in muslce contraction
Sources of calcium (4)
-low fat cheese
-green leafy veggies
what happens when taking in too much calcium
-it is excreted out
Calcium supplements may lead to..
2 thigns that happen by not consuming calcium?
- *low-blood calcium
3 functions of phosphorus
-important for mineral composition of bone
-required for proper fluid balance
-component of ATP, DNA, membranes
SOurces of phosphorus (3)
-high-protein containing foods (milk, meats, eggs)
-processed ffoods as food additive
-soft drinks as phosphoric acid
Consuming too much phosphorus (3)
-excessive vitamin d supps. can lead to high phosphorous levels
2 fucntions of magnesium
-mineral found in bone structure
- -nerve and heart function
- *muscle contraction
Sources of magnesium (5)
-green leafy veggies
What can magnesium supplements cause? (4)
diarrhea, nausea, cramps, dehydration
Consuming too little of magnesium
- *can result in low blood calcium and osteoporosis
2 fucntions of flouride
-development and maintenance of teeth and bones
-combines with calcium and phosphorus to protect teeth from bacteria
2 sources of flouride
-flouridated dental products
Consuming too much fouride
What is flourosis? (3)
-taking in too much flouride
-creates porous tooth enamel
-teeth become stained and pitted
What if you dont consume enough flouride?
How is OSteoporosis characterized? (4)
-low bone mass
-deterioration of bone tissue
-fragile bones leading to bone fractures
-shorteining and hunching of spine
Age factor AND osteoporosis (3)
-bone mass decreases with age
-age related hormonal changes influence bone density
-older adults are less able to absorb vitamin D
Gender risk AND OSteoporosis (2)
- -estrogen loss in post menopausal
- *increases bone loss
- -women make up 80% of americans with osteoporosis
- *women have lower bone density
Regular excersise AND OSteoporosis
-it helps increased bone mass to rpevent osteoporosis
How can the progression of osteoporosis be slowed? (3)
adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D
4 minerals involved in energy metabolism
What is iodine critical for?
synthesis of thyroid hormones
What do thyroid hormones regulate? (2)
-resting metabolic rate
Sources of iodine (4)
Excess of iodine
-blocks synthesis of thyroid hormones
-thyroid tries to make more hormones
- -can result in goiter
- *enlarged thyroid
-results in hypothyroidism and goiter
(iodine deficiency) Cretinism
mental retardation from iodine deficiency during embryonic development
What does chromium do?
-assists insulin as it transports glucose from the blood into the cells
good sources of chromium
mushrooms, prunes, dark chocolate, nuts, whole grains
inhibits glucose absorption by body cells
What does manganese do ? (2)
-coenzyme involved in enrgy metabolism
-part of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismultase
Good sources of manganese
whole grain foods, brown rice, pineapple, pine nuts, okra, spinach
Toxicity of manganese
impairs the nervous system causing spasms and tremors
What is sulfur required for?
detoxification of alcohol and drugs by the liver
Amino acids AND sulfur
sulfur can be found in few amino acids
What is a component of thiamin and biotin?
What is the only fluid tissue in the body?
2 functions of blood
-transport of oxygen and nutrients to cells
-removal of wastes from tissues
4 components of blood
(components of blood) Erythrocytes
-RBC for transporting oxygen through the body
(components of blood) Leukocytes
WBC of the immune system
(components of blood) Platelets
cell fragments that assist in blood clotting
(components of blood) Plasma
the fluid portion of the blood
3 functions of iron
- -component of protein hemoglobin
- *carries oxygen in erythrocytes
-component of myoglobin which carries oxygen in muscle cells
-coenzyme involved in energy metabolism of macros
Sources of iron
-meat, poultry, fish, clams, enriches cereal, breads
What is heme iron?
found in animal based foods and more absorbable
What is non-heme iron?
not easily absorbed
Overconumption of iron (4)
- + risk of heart attack
- liver and heart damage in hemochromatosis
most common deficiency in world
what results in iron deficient anemia?
iron deficiency results in small rbc that do not carry enough hemoglobin
Functions of zinc
development and function of immune system
sources of zinc
red meats, some seafood, whole grains, enriched grains and cereals
can toxicity occur with zinc?
intestinal pain, cramps, nausea, vomitting, loss of apetitie
not consuming enough zinc
-growth retardation, diarrhes, delayed sexual maturation
functions of copper
reuqired for iron transport
sources of copper
organ meats, seafood, nuts, seeds, whole grain foods
not consuming enough copper
anemia, reduced WBC, osteoporosis in children