3.2.2

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Author:
efrain12
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205774
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3.2.2
Updated:
2013-03-07 23:22:38
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minerals day 2
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  1. (bone structure) 2 things bone structure allow for?
    -provides strength to support the body

    -allows for flexibility
  2. (bone structure) what percentage of minerals provide the hardness of bone?
    65%
  3. (bone structure) What percent of oragnic structures provide bones for strength, durability, and lfiexibility?
    35%
  4. What is collagen?
    fibrous protein in bone tissue
  5. What are the two types of bone tissue?
    -cortical bone (compact bone)

    -trabecular bone (spongy bone)
  6. (2 types of bone tissue) Cortical bone (2)
    -compact bone

    -very dense tissue making up 80% of the skeleton
  7. (2 types of bone tissue) Trabecular bone (4)
    -spongy bone

    -scaffolding on the inside of bones

    -supports cortical bone

    -makes up 20% of the skeleton
  8. What 3 processes do bones go through to develop?
    -bone growth

    -bone modeling

    -bone remodeling
  9. (processes for bone develop) Bone growth (3)
    -increase in bone size

    -completed by age 14 in girls

    -completed by age 17 in boys
  10. (processes for bone develop) Bone modeling (2)
    -shaping of bone

    -completed by early adulthood
  11. (processes for bone develop) Bone remodeling
    -reshaping of bone

    -continuous remodeling that continues throughout life span
  12. What two processes happen for bone remodeling?
    • -resorption
    • *breaking surface of bones

    -formation of new bone
  13. (processes for bone remodeling) What is resorption?
    • surface of bones is broken down
    • *by osteoclasts
  14. (processes for bone develop)(resorbtion) Osteoclasts
    cells that erode the surface of bones
  15. (processes for bone develop) How does formation of new bone occur? (2)
    • by cells called osteoblasts
    • *they produce the collagen-containing component of bone
  16. When is peak bone density reached?
    before age 30
  17. When does bone density start to decrease? and why?
    after age 40 because the resorption exceeds new bone formation
  18. Which mineral is tthe most abunsdant in the body?
    calcium
  19. 4 functions of calcium
    -form and maintain bones and teeth

    -assists with acid-base balance

    -transmission of nerve impulses

    -assist in muslce contraction
  20. Sources of calcium (4)
    -skim milk

    -low fat cheese

    -green leafy veggies

    -nonfat yogurt
  21. what happens when taking in too much calcium
    -it is excreted out
  22. Calcium supplements may lead to..
    mineral imbalances
  23. 2 thigns that happen by not consuming calcium?
    • -hypoglycemia
    • *low-blood calcium

    -osteoporosis
  24. 3 functions of phosphorus
    -important for mineral composition of bone

    -required for proper fluid balance

    -component of ATP, DNA, membranes
  25. SOurces of phosphorus (3)
    -high-protein containing foods (milk, meats, eggs)

    -processed ffoods as food additive

    -soft drinks as phosphoric acid
  26. Consuming too much phosphorus (3)
    -excessive vitamin d supps. can lead to high phosphorous levels

    -muscle spasms

    -convulsions
  27. 2 fucntions of magnesium
    -mineral found in bone structure

    • -nerve and heart function
    • *muscle contraction
  28. Sources of magnesium (5)
    -green leafy veggies

    -whole grains

    -seeds

    -seafood

    -beans
  29. What can magnesium supplements cause? (4)
    diarrhea, nausea, cramps, dehydration
  30. Consuming too little of magnesium
    • hypomagnesemia
    • *can result in low blood calcium and osteoporosis
  31. 2 fucntions of flouride
    -development and maintenance of teeth and bones

    -combines with calcium and phosphorus to protect teeth from bacteria
  32. 2 sources of flouride
    -flouridated dental products

    -flouridated water
  33. Consuming too much fouride
    -flourosis
  34. What is flourosis? (3)
    -taking in too much flouride

    -creates porous tooth enamel

    -teeth become stained and pitted
  35. What if you dont consume enough flouride?
    dental caries
  36. How is OSteoporosis characterized? (4)
    -low bone mass

    -deterioration of bone tissue

    -fragile bones leading to bone fractures

    -shorteining and hunching of spine
  37. Age factor AND osteoporosis (3)
    -bone mass decreases with age

    -age related hormonal changes influence bone density

    -older adults are less able to absorb vitamin D
  38. Gender risk AND OSteoporosis (2)
    • -estrogen loss in post menopausal
    • *increases bone loss

    • -women make up 80% of americans with osteoporosis
    • *women have lower bone density
  39. Regular excersise AND OSteoporosis
    -it helps increased bone mass to rpevent osteoporosis
  40. How can the progression of osteoporosis be slowed? (3)
    adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D

    -regular exercise

    -anti-resorptive medications
  41. 4 minerals involved in energy metabolism
    -iodine

    -chromium

    -manganese

    -sulfur
  42. What is iodine critical for?
    synthesis of thyroid hormones
  43. What do thyroid hormones regulate? (2)
    -body temperature 

    -resting metabolic rate
  44. Sources of iodine (4)
    -saltwater fish

    -shrimp

    -iodized salt

    -dairy products
  45. Excess of iodine
    -blocks synthesis of thyroid hormones

    -thyroid tries to make more hormones

    • -can result in goiter
    • *enlarged thyroid
  46. Iodine deficiency
    -results in hypothyroidism and goiter

    -cretinism
  47. (iodine deficiency) Cretinism
    mental retardation from iodine deficiency during embryonic development
  48. What does chromium do?
    -assists insulin as it transports glucose from the blood into the cells
  49. good sources of chromium
    mushrooms, prunes, dark chocolate, nuts, whole grains
  50. Chromium deficiency
    inhibits glucose absorption by body cells
  51. What does manganese do ? (2)
    -coenzyme involved in enrgy metabolism

    -part of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismultase
  52. Good sources of manganese
    whole grain foods, brown rice, pineapple, pine nuts, okra, spinach
  53. Toxicity of manganese
    impairs the nervous system causing spasms and tremors
  54. What is sulfur required for?
    detoxification of alcohol and drugs by the liver
  55. Amino acids AND sulfur
    sulfur can be found in few amino acids
  56. What is a component of thiamin and biotin?
    sulfur
  57. What is the only fluid tissue in the body?
    blood
  58. 2 functions of blood
    -transport of oxygen and nutrients to cells

    -removal of wastes from tissues
  59. 4 components of blood
    -erythrocytes

    -leukocytes

    -platelets

    -plasma
  60. (components of blood) Erythrocytes
    -RBC for transporting oxygen through the body
  61. (components of blood) Leukocytes
    WBC of the immune system
  62. (components of blood) Platelets
    cell fragments that assist in blood clotting
  63. (components of blood) Plasma
    the fluid portion of the blood
  64. 3 functions of iron
    • -component of protein hemoglobin
    • *carries oxygen in erythrocytes

    -component of myoglobin which carries oxygen in muscle cells

    -coenzyme involved in energy metabolism of macros
  65. Sources of iron
    -meat, poultry, fish, clams, enriches cereal, breads
  66. What is heme iron?
    found in animal based foods and more absorbable
  67. What is non-heme iron?
    not easily absorbed
  68. Overconumption of iron (4)
    -toxicity symptoms

    - + risk of heart attack

    - liver and heart damage in hemochromatosis

    -constipation
  69. Iron deficiency
    most common deficiency in world
  70. what results in iron deficient anemia?
    iron deficiency results in small rbc that do not carry enough hemoglobin
  71. Functions of zinc
    development and function of immune system
  72. sources of zinc
    red meats, some seafood, whole grains, enriched grains and cereals
  73. can toxicity occur with zinc?
    yes

    intestinal pain, cramps, nausea, vomitting, loss of apetitie
  74. not consuming enough zinc
    -uncommon

    -growth retardation, diarrhes, delayed sexual maturation
  75. functions of copper
    reuqired for iron transport
  76. sources of copper
    organ meats, seafood, nuts, seeds, whole grain foods
  77. not consuming enough copper
    anemia, reduced WBC, osteoporosis in children

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