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What is the most abundant macromolecule in cells?
What are proteins composed of?
- sometimes sulfur and phosphorus
What are the building blocks of proteins?
What are the 10 essential amino acids?
What are peptides?
AA linked together by peptide bonds
What are the two components of peptide bonds?
- carboxyl group of one aa
- amino group of another aa
What are the categories of peptides?
- polypeptide (10-15)
- protein--> super long
What are the levels of structure of proteins?
- primary-straight chain
- secondary-aa start to interact
- tertiary-fold back with globular proteins
- quaternary-interaction of 2 gene products
Why are proteins buffers? (help maintain homeostasis)
- amino end donates hydrogen
- carboxyl end accepts hydrogen
What structures of protein are more digestible?
What is a downfall of proteins?
- easily denatured by
- chemical, physical or biological
- pH extremes, alcohols
What are the two groups of simple proteins?
- fibrous-long chains, low digestibility
- globular-compact, folded chains, higher digestibility
What are considered nonproteins located in complex proteins?
What are functions of proteins?
- muscle contaction
- nutrient storage
What do proteins transport?
- molecules in blood
- hemoglobin (oxygen)
- membrane proteins
A carbon skeleton structure:
What are the common limiting AA (in order)?
What are examples of animal protein?
- milk protein
- fish meal
- blood meal
- plasma proteins
- meat and bone meal
What is the general structure of a protein?
- Central carbon attached to
- amino group
- R group (side chain)
- Carboxyl group (O=C-O) at Carbon
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