Chapter 6

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Chapter 6
2013-03-08 10:34:56
Cardiovascular System

vocabulary words and word parts
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  1. Largest artery of the body; artery through which blood exits the heart.
  2. Valve between the aorta and the left ventricle.
    aortic valve
  3. A tiny artery connecting to a capillary.
  4. A thick-walled blood vessel that, in systemic circulation, carries oxygenated blood away from the heart.
  5. Bundle of fibers in the interventricular septum that transfers charges in the heart's conduction system; also called bundle of His.
    atrioventricular bundle
  6. Specialized part of the interatrial septum that sends a charge to the bundle of His.
    atrioventricular (AV) node
  7. One of two valves that control blood flow between the atria and ventricles.
    atrioventricular valve
  8. Either of the two upper chambers of the heart.
  9. Atrioventricular valve on the left side of the heart.
    bicuspid valve
  10. Essential fluid made up of plasma and other elements that circulates throughout the body; delivers nutrients to and removes waste from the body's cells.
  11. Measure of the force of blood surging against the walls of the arteries.
    blood pressure
  12. Any of the tubular passageways in the cardiovascular system through which blood travels.
    blood vessel
  13. Also atrioventricular bundle
    bundle of His
  14. A tiny blood vessel that forms the exchange point between the arterial and venous vessels.
  15. Waste material transported in the venous blood.
    carbon dioxide (CO2)
  16. Repeated contraction and relaxation of the heart as it circulates the blood within itself and pumps it out to the rest of the body or the lungs.
    cardiac cycle
  17. Relating to or affecting the heart and blood vessels.
  18. Artery that transports oxygenated blood to the head and neck.
    carotid artery
  19. Part of the heart containing specialized tissue that sends charges through heart fibers, causing the heart to contract and relax at regular intervals.
    conduction system
  20. Blood vessel that supplies oxygen-rich blood to the heart.
    coronary artery
  21. Contracting state of the myocardial tissue in the heart's conduction system.
  22. Relaxation phase of a heartbeat.
  23. Structure in the fetal circulatory system through which blood flows to bypass the fetus's nonfunctioning lungs.
    ductus arteriosus
  24. Structure in the fetal circulatory system through which blood flows to bypass the fetal liver.
    ductus venosus
  25. Membranous lining of the chambers and valves of the heart; the innermost layer of heart tissue.
  26. Lining of the arteries that secretes substances into the blood.
  27. Outermost layer of heart tissue.
  28. An artery that supplies blood to the thigh.
    femoral artery
  29. Opening in the septum of the fetal heart that closes at birth.
    foramen ovale
  30. Muscular organ that receives blood from the veins and sends it into the arteries.
  31. Large vein that draws blood from the lower part of the body to the right atrium.
    inferior vena cava
  32. Upper left heart chamber.
    left atrium
  33. Lower left heart chamber.
    left ventricle
  34. Channel inside an artery through which blood flows.
  35. Also bicuspid valve
    mitral valve
  36. Muscular layer of heart tissue between the epicardium and the endocardium.
  37. Term for the sinoatrial (SA) node; also, an artificial device that regulates heart rhythm.
  38. Protective covering of the heart.
  39. Resting state of the myocardial tissue in the conduction system of the heart.
  40. An artery that supplies blood to the cells of the area behind the knee.
    popliteal artery
  41. One of two arteries that carry blood that is low in oxygen from the heart to the lungs.
    pulmonary artery
  42. Valve that controls the blood flow between the right ventricle and the pulmonary arteries.
    pulmonary valve
  43. One of four veins that bring oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium.
    pulmonary vein
  44. Rhythmic expansion and contraction of a blood vessel, usually an artery.
  45. Recharging state; transition from contraction to resting that occurs in the conduction system of the heart.
  46. Upper right chamber of the heart.
    right atrium
  47. Lower right chamber of the heart.
    right ventricle
  48. Any of a group of veins that transport deoxygenated blood from the legs.
    saphenous vein
  49. One of the two valves that prevent the backflow of blood flowing out of the hear into the aorta and the pulmonary artery.
    semilunar valve
  50. Partition between the left and right chambers of the heart.
  51. Region of the right atrium containing specialized tissue that sends electrical impulses to the heart muscle, causing it to contract.
    sinoatrial (SA) node
  52. Normal heart rhythm.
    sinus rhythm
  53. Large vein that transports blood collected from the upper part of the body to the heart.
    superior vena cava
  54. Contraction phase of the heartbeat.
  55. Atrioventricular valve on the right side of the heart.
    tricuspid valve
  56. Any of various structures that slow or prevent fluid from flowing backward or forward.
  57. Any of various blood vessels carrying deoxygenated blood toward the heart, except the pulmonary vein.
  58. Either of the two lower chambers of the heart.
  59. A tiny vein connecting to a capillary.
  60. angi(o)
    blood vessel
  61. aort(o)
  62. arteri(o), arter(o)
  63. ather(o)
    fatty matter
  64. atri(o)
  65. cardi(o)
  66. hemangi(o)
    blood vessel
  67. pericardi(o)
  68. phleb(o)
  69. sphygm(o)
  70. thromb(o)
    blood clot
  71. vas(o)
    blood vessel
  72. ven(o)
  73. Viewing of the heart and its major blood vessels by x-ray after injection of a contrast medium.
  74. Viewing of the heart's major blood vessels by x-ray after injection of a contrast medium.
  75. Viewing of the aorta by x-ray after injection of a contrast medium
  76. Viewing of a specific artery by x-ray after injection of a contrast medium.
  77. Process of listening to body sounds via a stethoscope.
  78. Process of passing a thin catheter through an artery or vein to the heart to take blood samples, inject a contrast medium, or measure various pressures.
    cardiac catheterization
  79. Blood tests for determining levels of enzymes during a myocardial infarction; serum enzyme tests.
    cardiac enzyme tests/studies
  80. Viewing of the heart by magnetic resonance imaging.
    cardiac MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
  81. Process of viewing the heart muscle at work by scanning the heart of a patient into whom a radioactive substance has been injected.
    cardiac scan
  82. Fatty substance present in animal fats; cholesterol circulates in the bloodstream, sometimes causing arterial plaque to form.
  83. Use of two angiograms done with different dyes to provide a comparison between the results.
    digital subtraction angiography
  84. Ultrasound test of blood flow in certain blood vessels.
    Doppler ultrasound
  85. Use of sound waves to produce images showing the structure and motion of the heart.
  86. Percentage of the volume of the contents of the left ventricle ejected with each contraction.
    ejection fraction
  87. Use of the electrocardiograph in diagnosis.
  88. Portable device that provides a 24-hour electrocardiogram.
    Holter monitor
  89. Laboratory test that provides the levels of lipids, triglycerides, and other substances in the blood.
    lipid profile
  90. Radioactive scan showing heart function.
    multiple-gated acquisition (MUGA) angiography
  91. Viewing of a vein by x-ray after injection of a contrast medium.
  92. Type of nuclear image that measures movement of areas of the heart.
    positron emission tomography (PET) scan
  93. Laboratory tests performed to detect enzymes present during or after a myocardial infarction.
    serum enzyme tests
  94. Production of images based on the echoes of sound waves against structures.
  95. Device for measuring blood pressure.
  96. Test that measures heart rate and functions while the patient is exercising on a treadmill.
    stress test
  97. Fatty substance; lipid.
  98. Viewing of a vein by x-ray after injection of a contrast medium.
  99. X-ray of a ventricle taken after injection of a contrast medium.
  100. Ballooning of the artery wall caused by weakness in the wall.
  101. Angina pectoris
  102. Chest pain, usually caused by a lowered oxygen or blood supply to the heart.
    angina pectoris
  103. Backward flow or leakage of flood through a faulty aortic valve.
    aortic regurgitation or reflux
  104. Narrowing of the aorta.
    aortic stenosis
  105. Irregularity in the rhythm of the heartbeat.
  106. Hardening of the arteries.
  107. Inflammation of an artery or arteries.
  108. Cardiac arrest.
  109. A fatty deposit (plaque) in the wall of an artery.
  110. Hardening of the arteries caused by the buildup of atheromas.
  111. An irregular, usually rapid, heartbeat caused by overstimulation of the AV node.
    atrial fibrillation
  112. Heart block; partial or complete blockage of the electrical impulses from the atrioventricular node to the ventricles.
    atrioventricular block
  113. Bacterial inflammation of the inner lining of the heart.
    bacterial endocarditis
  114. Heart rate of fewer than 60 beats per minute.
  115. Sound or murmur, especially an abnormal heart sound heard on auscultation, especially of the carotid artery.
  116. Sudden stopping of the heart; also called asystole.
    cardiac arrest
  117. Compression of the heart caused by fluid accumulation in the pericardial sac.
    cardiac tamponade
  118. Disease of the heart muscle.
  119. Limping caused by inadequate blood supply during activity; usually subsides during rest.
  120. Abnormal narrowing od the aorta.
    coarctation of the aorta
  121. Heart disease (usually a type of malformation) that exists at birth.
    congenital heart disease
  122. Inability of the heart to pump enough blood out during the cardiac cycle; collection of fluid in the lungs results.
    congestive heart failure
  123. Compression or narrowing caused by contraction, as of a vessel.
  124. Condition that reduces the flow of blood and nutrients through the arteries of the heart.
    coronary artery disease (CAD)
  125. Bluish or purplish coloration, as of the skin, caused by inadequate oxygenation of the blood.
  126. Formation of a thrombus (clot) in a deep vein, such as a femoral vein.
    deep vein thrombosis
  127. Abnormal heart rhythm.
  128. Mass of foreign material blocking a vessel.
  129. Inflammation of the endocardium, especially an inflammation caused by a bacterial (for example, staphylococci) or fungal agent.
  130. High blood pressure without any known cause.
    essential hypertension
  131. Random, chaotic, irregular heart rhythm.
  132. Regular but very rapid heartbeat.
  133. Triple sound of a heartbeat, usually indicative of serious heart disease.
  134. Also atrioventricular block
    heart block
  135. Varicose condition of veins in the anal region.
  136. Also hypertension
    high blood pressure
  137. Chronic condition with blood pressure greater than 140/90.
  138. Heart disease caused, or worsened, by high blood pressure.
    hypertensive heart disease
  139. Chronic condition with blood pressure below normal.
  140. Area of necrosis caused by a sudden drop in the supply of arterial or venous blood.
  141. Sudden drop in the supply of arterial or venous blood, often due to an embolus or thrombus.
  142. Attacks of limping, particularly in the legs, due to ischemia of the muscles.
    intermittent claudication
  143. A tumor within one of the heart chambers.
    intracardiac tumor
  144. Localized blood insufficiency caused by an obstruction.
  145. Also hypotension
    low blood pressure
  146. Backward flow of blood due to a damaged mitral valve.
    mitral insufficiency or reflux
  147. Abnormal narrowing at the opening of the mitral valve.
    mitral stenosis
  148. Backward flow of blood into the left atrium due to protrusion of one or both mitral cusps into the left atrium during contractions.
    mitral valve prolapse
  149. Soft heart humming sound heard between normal beats.
  150. Sudden drop in the supply of blood to an area of the heart muscle, usually due to a blockage in a coronary artery.
    myocardial infarction (MI)
  151. Inflammation of the myocardium.
  152. Death of tissue or an organ or part due to irreversible damage; usually a result of oxygen deprivation.
  153. The closing of a blood vessel.
  154. Uncomfortable pulsations of the heart felt as a thumping in the chest.
  155. A condition at birth in which the ductus arteriosus, a small duct between the aorta and the pulmonary artery, remains abnormally open.
    patent ductus arteriosus
  156. Lack of flow through a blood vessel, usually caused by an occlusion.
    perfusion deficit
  157. Inflammation of the pericardium.
  158. Vascular disease in the lower extremities, usually due to blockages in the arteries of the groin or legs.
    peripheral vascular disease
  159. Minute hemorrhages in the skin.
  160. Inflammation of a vein.
  161. Buildup of solid material, such as a fatty deposit, on the lining of an artery.
  162. Atrial contractions that occur before the normal impulse; can be the cause of palpitations.
    premature atrial contractions (PACs)
  163. Ventricular contractions that occur before the normal impulse; can be the cause of palpitations.
    premature ventricular contractions (PVCs)
  164. Narrowing of the pulmonary artery, preventing the lungs from receiving enough blood from the heart to oxygenate.
    pulmonary artery stenosis
  165. Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the lungs.
    pulmonary edema
  166. Spasm in the arteries of the fingers causing numbness or pain.
    Raynaud's phenomenon
  167. Heart valve and/or muscle damage caused by an untreated streptococcal infection.
    rheumatic heart disease
  168. Any of various factors considered to increase the probability that a disease will occur; for example, high blood pressure and smoking are considered risk factors for heart disease.
    risk factor
  169. Frictional sound heard between heartbeats, usually indicating a pericardial murmur.
  170. Hypertension having a known cause, such as kidney disease.
    secondary hypertension
  171. Congenital abnormatlity consisting of an opening in the septum between the atria or ventricles.
    septal defect
  172. Narrowing, particularly of blood vessels or of the cardiac valves.
  173. Heart rate greater than 100 beats per minute.
  174. Set of four congenital heart abnormalities appearing together that cause deoxygenated blood to enter the systemic circulation: ventricular septal defect, pulmonary stenosis, incorrect position of the aorta, and right ventricular hypertrophy.
    tetralogy of Fallot
  175. Inflammation of a vein with a thrombus.
  176. Presence of a thrombus in a blood vessel.
  177. Narrowing caused by a thrombus.
    thrombotic occlusion
  178. Stationary blood clot in the cardiovascular system, usually formed from matter found in the blood.
  179. Abnormal narrowing of the opening of the tricuspid valve.
    tricuspid stenosis
  180. Inflammation of a heart valve.
  181. Dilated, enlarged, or twisted vein, usually on the leg.
    varicose vein
  182. Clot on a heart valve or opening, usually caused by infection.
  183. Surgical connection of two blood vessels to allow blood flow between them.
  184. Opening of a blocked blood vessel, as by balloon dilation.
  185. Viewing of the interior of a blood vessel using a feberoptic catheter inserted or threaded into the vessel.
  186. Surgical incision into an artery, especially to remove a clot.
  187. Surgical removal of an atheroma.
  188. Insertion of a ballon catheter into a blood vessel to open the passage so blood can flow freely.
    ballon catheter dilation
  189. Procedure that uses a balloon catheter to open narrowed orifices in cardiac valves.
    balloon valvuloplasty
  190. A structure (usually a vein graft) that creates a new passage for blood to flow from one artery to another artery or part of an artery; used to create a detour around blockages in arteries.
  191. Procedure used during surgery to divert blood flow to and from the heart through a heart-lung machine and back into circulation.
    cardiopulmonary bypass
  192. Also angioplasty
    coronary angioplasty
  193. Also bypass
    coronary bypass surgery
  194. Stent that contains medication.
    drug-eluting stent
  195. Surgical removal of an embolus.
  196. Surgical removal of the diseased portion of the lining of an artery.
  197. Any of various procedures performed during cardiac catheterization, such as angioscopy and atherectomy.
    endovascular surgery
  198. Any tissue or organ implanted to replace or mend damaged areas.
  199. Implantation of the heart of a person who has just died into a person whose diseased heart cannot sustain life.
    heart transplant
  200. Surgical removal of hemmorrhoids.
  201. Stent placed within a blood vessel to allow blood to flow freely.
    intravascular stent
  202. Also balloon catheter dilation
    percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
  203. Drawing blood from a vein via a small incision.
  204. Surgically implanted device used to hold something (as a blood vessel) open.
  205. Surgical removal of a thrombus.
  206. Surgical replacement of a coronary valve.
    valve replacement
  207. Incision into a cardiac valve to remove an obstruction.
  208. Surgical regonstruction of a cardiac valve.
  209. Small puncture into a vein, usually to draw blood of inject a solution.