Philo 6: Exam 2 (on Chapter 2)

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  1. Two Linguistic Functions:
    1. Convey Information=> Cognitive meaning

    2. Express or evoke feelings (to persuade) => Emotive meanings.
  2. Value claim:
    a claim that something is good, bad, right, wrong, better or worse, more or less important than something else.

    --part of cognitive meaning of emotive charged statements, must be able to separate value claims from emotive statements.

    --require evidence to support them.

    -- emotion covers value claims and gives psychological momentum so listeners just believe the claims w/o evidence
  3. Vagueness:
    allows for borderline cases in which it is impossible to tell if the expression applies or not; allows for range of interpretations; blurs meaning.

    ex: love, fresh, rich or poor (varies on scale/degree)
  4. Ambiguous:
    one that can be interpreted as having completely different/distinct meanings; allow for varying interpretations.

    ex: Hot as in spicy or hot as in temperature?
  5. Stipulative Definition
    Assigns a meaning to a word for the first time.

    --coining a new word; giving a new meaning to an old word

    ex: cyberdate
  6. Lexical Definition
    Dictionary definitions; may use colons to get rid of ambiguity and several definitions

    ex: "Scale" means a device for weighing things; part of the skin of a fish; a series of musical notes.
  7. Precising Definition
    To reduce vagueness of a word by putting into context

    ex: In the state of Alabama, "Poor" means having an annual income of less than $4,000
  8. Theoretical Definition
    Scientific/experimental def

    ex: "Sound" means a compression wave, in air or some other elastic medium, having a frequency ranging from 20 to 20,000
  9. Persuasive Definition
    emotionally charged definition to engender a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward what is denoted by the word.

    ex: "Sports Utility Vehicle" means an unwieldy pile of vehicular machinery that consumes massive quantities of fuel
  10. Enumerative Definitions
    Assigns a meaning to a term by naming members of the classs the term denotes

    ex: Corporation means Honda, Apple, Whole Foods...
  11. Definitions by Subclass
    meaning to a term by naing subclasses

    • ex: Flower means rose, lily, daisy
    • ex 2: Professional Person means doctor, lawyer, professor.

    **these subclasses can be broken down: many types of doctors, roses, etc
  12. Definition by Genus & Difference
    Assigns a meaning to a term by identifying a genus term and one or more difference words that when combined convey the meaning of term being defined

    • ex: "Doe" means a female deer
    • ex 2: "Oak" means a tree that bears acorns
  13. Synonymous Definition
    • defines by synonym.

    • ex: "Physician" means doctor
    • ex 2: "Error" means mistake.
  14. Etymological Definitions
    Assigns a meaning to a word by disclosing the word's ancestry in both its own language and other languages.

    ex: "Atom" originates from the Greek word meaning, "that which cannot be divided".
  15. Operational Definitions
    assigns a meaning to a word by specifying certain experimental preocedures that determine whether or not the word applies to a certain thing.

    ex: Brain activity means that an electroencephalograph shows oscillations when attached to a patients head

    ex 2:
Card Set:
Philo 6: Exam 2 (on Chapter 2)
2013-03-09 01:49:11

Vagueness vs. Ambiguity, Types of Definition, Connotative & Denotative.
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