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2010-05-24 17:43:58
Psychology Final

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  1. ob/ob Mice
    because of a genetic mutation, these mice lack the ability to produce leptin. So they fell as if they are starving when they are really obese. But they have the symptoms of a starving animal like decreased immune system functioning, low body temperature, and lack of energy.

  2. Sigmund Freud
    • the founder of psychoanalysis.
    • he believed sexual and aggresive instincts are the motivating forces that dictae human behavior.
  3. Cognitive therapy, abbreviated CT, was developed
    Aaron Beck A psychiatrist who was initally trained as a psychoanalyst. He developed the " Cognitive Therapy", abbreviated CT, this grew out of his research on depression.
  4. Cognitive Therapy
    A type of cognitive therapy, developed by psychiatrist Aaron Beack, that focuses on changing the clients unrealistic beliefs.
  5. Resistance
    • In psycoanalysis, the patients unconscious attempts to block the revelation of represssed memories and conflicts.
    • (the patient's conscious or unconscious attempts to block the process of revealing repressed memories and conflicts.)
  6. The study of how people change physically, mentally, and
    socially throughout the lifespan is called? .
    Developmental Psychology:the study of how people change physically, mentally, and socially throughout the lifespan.
  7. REM Sleep
    Type of sleep during which rapid eye movements (REM0 and dreaming usually occur and voluntary muscle activity is suppressed: also called active sleep or paradoxical sleep.
  8. According to the adaptive theory of sleep
    Suggest that the sleep patterns exhibited by different anumals, including humans, are the result of evolutionary adaption.

  9. Most of the neurons in the human nervous system
    • Interneurons: Type of neuron that communicates information from one neuron to the next.
    • ( By far, most of the neurons in the human nervous system are interneurons.)
  10. Restless Leg Syndrome
    • (RLS)
    • A condition in which unpleasant sensations in the lower legs are accompanied by an irresistible urge to move the legs, temporarily relieving the unpleasant sensation but dirupting sleep.
  11. During REM sleep, the dreamer tend to uncritically accept the chaotic, even bizarre of dreams. Why?
    This suggests that the dreamer's uncritical acceptance of bizarre and chaotic dream images and narratives can be explained in terms of inactivity of the *frontal lobes*. The very areas of the brain that are normally most active in analyzing and iterpreting new information, reasoning, planning, and intergrating info.
  12. Sensation
    The process of detecting a physical stimulus, such as light, sound, heat, or pressure.
  13. Pseudomemories
    false memories that can be created when hypnosis is used created when hypnosis is used to aid recall (hypermnesia)
  14. Narcolepsy
    A sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and brief lapses into sleep throughout the day.
  15. Cycles of NREM and REM sleep
    NREM sleep occurs, during the first 50-70 minute period of sleep. REM starts only for about 5-15 minutes

  16. According to Erik Erikson, the psychosocial
    conflict faced in old age is
    psychosocial conflict faced in old age is : Ego Integrity vs despair
  17. Practice Effect
    learning something from repetition. Any change in perfomance that results from mere repetition of a task.
  18. Meta- Analysis
    A statistical technique that involves combining and analyzing the results of many research studies on a specific topic in order to identify overall trends.

  19. The term phenotype refers to;
    The observable traits or characteristics of an organism as determined by the interaction of genetics and environmental factors. (The traits)
  20. Ivan Plavov
    Russinan physiologist who demonstrated that dogs could learn to associate a neutral stimulus, such as the sound of a bell, with an automatic behavior, such as salivating to food reflexively
  21. Learning
    A process that produces a relatively enduring change in behavior ot knowledge as a result of past experience.
  22. Motivation
    • The biological, emotional, cognitive or social forces that activate and direct behavior.
    • *Three basic characteristics commonly associated with motivation: Activation, persistence, intensity.
  23. Memory
    The mental processes that enable us to retain and use information over time.

    **memory involves three fundamental processes: encoding, storage, retrieval
  24. Catharsis
    the purging of the emotions or relieving of emotional tensions, esp. through certain kinds of art, as tragedy or music or hypnosis.
  25. Rene' Descartes
    French philosopher who proposed a doctrine called inteactive dualism- the idea that the mind and body were seperate entities that interact to produce sensations, emotions, and other conscious esperiences.
  26. Genotype
    The unique genetic makeup of an individual organism made up of 26 chromosome. 23 from the mother 23 from the father.
  27. Carl Wernicke
    A German nuerologist that identified an area on the left temporal lobe that, when damaged, disrupted the ability to understand written or spoken language.

  28. Many psychoanalytic ideas are difficult to test
    Free association. "not a valid method of accessing the patients' repressed actual memories because there is no way of ensuring that the analyst is capable of distinguishing between the patients'actual memories and imagined memories constructed due to the influence of the analyst's leading questions.
  29. Specifying exactly when, where, an how you will
    carry out an intended behavior, liking specific situational cues to the
    intended behavior, is called a(n):
    implementation intention

  30. The social psychologist who is best known for
    his Robbers Cave experiments and his study of prejudice, conflict resolution,
    and group processes is?
    Muzafer Sherif
  31. There are roughly ______ neurons in the human brain
    100 billion
  32. From the third floor, you look down at the
    sidewalk crowded with students walking between buildings. Because of the law of
    _______, you perceive the
    students walking in each direction on the sidewalk as separate units.
  33. As you are walking n a crowded hallway, someone
    calls your name. Almost instantly, you sense that the person is on your left.
    Your brain’s ability to detect the direction of a sound is initially processed

  34. A German neurologist named _____ identified an area on the left temporal lobe that, when damaged, disrupted the ability to understand written or spoken language.
    Carl Wernicke

  35. The notion of structural plasticity:
    the brain’s ability to change its physical structure in response to
  36. What is a psychograph?
    An antique phrenology machine which measures the skulls on an individuals brain.
  37. What is a “Freudian slip”?
    • A verbal mistake that is thought to reveal a repressed belief, thought,
    • or emotion.
  38. The Gestalt psychologists:
    emphasized the we perceive whole objects or figures rather than isolated bits and pieces of sensory information.
  39. If you touch something hot, you will reflexively
    withdraw your hand. Using Pavlov’s terminology, reflexively withdrawing your
    hand would be termed a(n):
    Withdrawal reflex
  40. The hormones that are released by the adrenal
    cortex and that play a key role I the body’s response to long-term stressors
    are called?
  41. Marcel has red-green color blindness. In other
    words, Marcel
    cannot discriminate between red and green.
  42. In psychological research, the practice effect
    refers to:
    • any change in performance that results from mere
    • repetition of a task. Practice makes perfect
  43. ______ light contains all the wavelengths and thus all
    the colors of the visible spectrum.
  44. The atypical antipsychotics:
    • a group of antipsychotic drugs used to treat psychiatric conditions. Some atypical antipsychotics are FDA approved for use in the treatment of schizophrenia
  45. Clinical depression
    is for pussies.