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What is sociology?
The study of human behavior
What do sociologists believe shapes human behavior?
The groups in which we belong
What are social facts?
Anything external to the individual which have coercive power over the individual whether they know it or not.
What was the earliest explanations for human behavior?
What is modern day explanation of behavior that has an equivalent view upon the earliest explanation?
How do psychology and sociology differ?
Psych focuses more upon factors internal to the individual
, personality, self-esteem.
Sociology focuses on the effects of an individuals environment on their behavior
Ex: Murder rate of city or suicide rates males/females whites/blacks
When comparing FBI statistics with media portrayals of crime, who was over-represented according to Estep & Macdonal'd study of prime time crime?
- More whites,
- more males
- wealthier than their real life counterparts
According to TV portrayals of robbery suspects, what motivates these suspects to commit robberies?
According to the FBI profile what may be motivation to steal?
Who coined the term sociology?
What 3 research activities should be pursued by sociologists according to Auguste Comte?
With suicide, Durkheim found 2 things that lowers the egoistic (individual motivated) type of suicide?
Getting married & belonging to a religon
Because these people feel more integrated into the society. (feel belonged)
What drives society forward according to Karl Marx?
Economic resources -- money & its pursuit
What is false consciousness?
When the workers think their interests are the same as the owners
What did WEber mean by verstehen?
Which theory is based on webers idea?
What do symbolic interactionists think about reality?
It is based upon ones subjective understanding of the situation.
While symbolic interactionism focuses on _______ ______ which is the focus of both functional and conflict theorists is the society, as a whole.
What do functionalists believe motivates human behavior?
- Interpersonal Interaction
- Values and beliefs
What do conflict theorists think motivates human behavior?
Money, Success or getting ahead
What 2 reasons did Kingsley Davis give for the survival of prostitution?
It'a a good deal for the female worker, some unfortunate men need a sexual outlet.
Families survivals depend on the availability of a prostitute so the male does not have to have his wife degrade herself for his pleasure.
How can sociology claim to be science?
It uses scientific processes to do research
With an experiment, what two groups are essential?
Control & Experimental
What does the experimental group receive?
What does the control group receive?
- Nothing or a placebo
- A stimulus thought not to affect the outcome
In the bobo doll research, which group hit their rubber dolls more often?
Experimental Group -- Those who watched the video
With respect to SURVEYS, what is the difference between the two main types:
Questionnaires and Interviews
Questionnaires are to be answered by the respondent and in the interview, and interviewer asks questions and records the responses.
Can be more biased
In observation, what is the difference in detached and participant observation?
In detached, the researcher just takes notes and then he or she participates near end and later writes up the notes.
What is the Hawthorne Effect?
The fact that if one knows he or she is being studied, may change their behavior.
Content Analysis involves asking questions about _____ _____ like television or personal computers.
According to the text, in Goodes content analysis of responses to personal ads, what was the most important trait in mates for females?
- Cultural Products
- Financial Responsibility
What are 3 main problems when researching human beings faced by sociological researchers?
- Not causing them Harm
- Not invading their privacy
- Kepping info and participants anonymous
Why was Zimbardo unable to complete the two weeks of the prison-like life?
The problems that occurred when guards, prisoners, and the Warden thought it was really a prison.
When did Milgram set out to find in his study of Obedience?
What did he find?
Whether or not Americans behaved like Germans and obeyed authority figures when ordered to do so.
65% of them complied with the orders.
In the bystander intervention research by ____ & ______, when smoke started pouring into a waiting room. when did the naive subject respond the fastest?
- Darley & Latane
- Alone with one other plant or with two other plants
What is thought to balance possible invasions of privacy and/or potential harm-creating situations for the researchers?
Gaining of knowledge about the topic
In Humphreys study , Tearoom Trade, what 2 methods were used?
Observation and survey--interview
What did Humphreys study with observation?
What did he do with they survey?
What finding of humphreys has become very important in predicting and explaining the spread of AIDS in US?
Males who were at public restrooms to have anonymous sex with other males
Find out about the characteristics of the males observed
The fact that most of the men were married
What is culture?
Beliefs, values, and material objects common to members of society.
What is society?
People living in the same geographical region
What are values?
Ideas about what is right and wrong, good and bad.
What 6 emotions do sociologists think are "cultural universals" or common in all cultures?
What do sociologists call the behavioral guidelines that societies create for its members?
Norms can be divided into 2 other categories, what are they?
Folkways & Mores
Folkways:(a custom like drinking coffee every morning)
Mores: are regarded as seriously significant norms, like not standing while taking notes, not talking during a lecture,.
Give an example of a violation of a Folkway?
Give an example of a violation of a Mores?
Mores are regarded as
Folkway violation: A male wearing no top on a sunny day
Mores: A female wearing no top on a sunny day
In what 5 ways does subculture typically differ from the dominant culture?
- Its appearance& dress beliefs
- Traditions & Rituals
- LAnguage and Argot
What is the purpose of an argot?
To let insiders know whats happening and keep outsiders from knowing
What change, according to the text, has rapidly occurred in the last 40 years in U.S. Culture?
Approval of premarital sex and the level of cohabition
What was the word from rap music asked in class that was known by most members of the class?
Bomb, YOLO, Dip,
What is a group?
Persons interacting with each other
What is an aggregate of persons?
Persons standing in the same place
What is difference between dyad and a triad?
Which of the two groups is more stable?
- Dyad = 2 person group
- Triad = Three person group
DYAD = MORE STABLE
Which groups are called primary groups?
- Family and close friends
- Because are ties with them are mainly expressive
Who typically comprises ones secondary groups?
Ones coworkers, parents, and teachers.
What trait characterizes primary or secondary groups?
Main focus is on getting task done or instrumental focus
What size group is thought to be best for discussions?
What is social loafing?
When a member or 2 of a group do not try to reach the groups goal, instead socialize and do not pay attention to the groups goal, often occurs when a group is large.
What size were the groups who figured out their scrambled words the fastest?
Mostly consisted of 3 although surprisingly one group of over 5 people got it quite quickly.
What is socialization?
a lifelong process of learning the culture and developing and identity
What lowered the high death rate amongst orphans in old-time orphanages?
Rooming with another person
In what ways did Isabel resemble an infant when she was found at 6 years old?
Growled, crawled, and did not talk.
How long did it take isabel to reach the mental age of 12?
How was Genie from Fresno abused?
Never spoken to, never eaten with, left totally alone for 13 years, she missed major stepping stones to becoming a human
What institution do most sociologists believe is the most important in our development?
Which infants--males or females-- are touched more often?
What do humans learn from their peers almost exclusively?
About drugs & sex
In the study of San Francisco grade school, which kids benefitted the most from being labeled "spurters" and actually became smarter?
Hispanics in grades 1, 2, and 3.
How is the use of computers in work and leisure affecting our behavior?
More sitting activities and less moving
What has the media taught children who view it more frequently?
That if arrested they have the right to remain silent
When is anticipatory socialization important?
To prepare for a future job
When does re socialization occur?
When entering a total institution , like the military, where all of ones activities happen within one single setting.
What happens to the new person entering a total institution?
stripping of one sold identity, called "degradation ceremony"
What are 4 definitions of deviance?
Which one will be used in class?
- Statistically rare
- Morally Objectionable Behavior
- Rule Breaking
- Being labeled a rule breaker
Being labeled a rule breaker
What is stigma?
Having a spoiled identity which often produces negative results
When does a stigma become a master status?
Whenever that one bad trait overpowers all other and leads to you being labeled.
When one deviates from the norm but does not get caught.
This same act seen by others may be seemed to be deviant, so the person not getting caught may start to label him/herself.
How did the saints and roughnecks differ in the types of illegal activity in high schools?
- Both Drank
- Saints: Did pranks and cut school
- Roughnecks: Fought and did Vandalism
What grade did the teachers think the roughnecks and saints deserved?
What was the effect of this label upon their future college prospects?
C Roughnecks and A's for saints
Saints might of grown out of this phase and eventually go to college?
What is crime?
Violation of the law
What is street crime?
FBI calls them?
- Crimes which are discussed the most in the news by official sources
- The 8 Index crimes
OF the The 8 Index crimes
4 are labeled _________ What are they?
4 are labeled _________ What are they?
- Aggravated assault
- Motor Theft
The increases of ___ ____ ___ ____ street crimes is what compose the crime rate and statistics.
The 8 Index crimes
What has happened to the crime rate in the last 30 years in the US?
What is a white-colar crime?
crimes committed in the course of ones occupation, like embezzelment
What are victimless crimes?
Those without victims like prostitution, gambling, and drug use
What is organized crime?
Crimes commited by members or syndicates (gangs)
What were 3 activities in the video clip that yakuza reportedly engaged in for money?
Prostitution, smuggling drugs, extortion
National Crime Victimization Survey has surveyed over 100,000. In comparing their figures to the FBI, they have found..........
Police know about 1/3 of all crime.
Uniform crime report
Only crime sreported to the police are included in thise.
According to FBI profile, what is most common age group for persons arrested for a crime?
15 - 24
What is the male to female percentage among arestees
What is the criterion used by courts to judge a juvenile delinquent?
How about the standard used by courts to decide if an adult is a a criminal?
Preponderance of evidence
Proof beyond reasonable doubt
What did the late DOnnald Cressey decide was the reason people embezzled money?
They had a secret need for extra money
What is meant by DWB
Driving while black
What are the traits used by police to identify a driver fitting the drug courier profile?
- Minority group member
- Were nervous
- Had flashy cars
- Drove about the speed limit
When the female in the black couple asked permission to go to the restroom, what response did she receive?
Negative she was a flight risk
Currently how many people are housed in US prisons?
Talking about prison, Compared to other countries how do we rank?
#1 most persons incarcerated as well as highest rates
What 1968 law helped increase the prison population at the same time that the crime rate was going down?
What has resulted?
The mandatory minimum drug sentences
Long sentences for drug offenses
Which illegal drug had the smallest amount to receive a mandatory minimum sentence of 5 years?
At what age can a juvenile be charged as an adult in California?
Can a juvenile get a strike?
For what offenders does pro 36, passed in 2000, provide an alternative to prison?
What are 3 conditions that make a drug offender not eligible for the treatment?
1st and 2nd drug offenders
Guns, gang membership, prior felony within 5 years
How much has prop 36 saved california?
almost 2 billion
What does recidivism mean?
What is the current Recidivism ratein US?
ex convicts who are rearrested and return to prison
Any exposure to education reduces inmates' recdivism by
What are 5 goals of imprisonment?
- Keep them away from society
- Changing prisoner via education
- Work release program
Which method is currently reserved for juveniles?