Lipids and Lipoproteins

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ncrook
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205955
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Lipids and Lipoproteins
Updated:
2013-05-04 18:30:55
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Clinical Significance Lipid Structure
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Clinical Significance, Lipid Structure
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  1. What is the reference range for Total cholesterol?
    • Desirable: <200
    • Borderline: 200-239
    • High: >/=240
  2. What is the reference range for HDL?
    • Protective against Heart Disease: >/=60
    • The Higher the Better: 40-59
    • Major Risk Factor for Heart Disease: <40
  3. What is the reference range for LDL?
    • Optimal: <100
    • Near optimal: 100-129
    • Borderline: 130-159
    • High: 160-189
    • Very High: >/=190
  4. What is the reference range for Triglyceride?
    • Normal: <150
    • Borderline: 150-199
    • High: 200-499
    • Very High: >/=500
  5. Name the Hyperlipoproteinemia with these characteristics:
    Serum appearance: Creamy layer of chlymicrons over clear serum
    Total cholesterol: Normal to moderately elevated
    Triglyceride: Extremely elevated
    Apo B-48 increased
    Apo A-IV increased
    Type I hyperlipoproteinemia: Elevated chylomicrons
  6. Name the Hyperlipoproteinemia with these characteristics:
    Serum appearance: Clear
    Total cholesterol: Generally elevated
    Triglyceride: Normal
    Apo-B 100 increased
    Type IIa hyperlipoproteinemia: Increased LDL
  7. Name the Hyperlipoproteinemia with these characteristics:
    Serum appearance: Clear or slightly turbid
    Total cholesterol: Elevated
    Triglyceride: Elevated
    Apo B-100 increased
    Type IIb hyperlipoproteinemia: Increased LDL and VLDL
  8. Name the Hyperlipoproteinemia with these characteristics:
    Serum appearance: Creamy layer sometimes present over a turbid layer
    Total cholesterol: Elevated
    Triglyceride: Elevated
    Apo E-II increased
    Apo E-III decreased
    Apo E-IV decreased
    Type III hyperlipoproteinemia: Increased IDL
  9. Name the Hyperlipoproteinemia with these characteristics:
    Serum appearance: Turbid
    Total cholesterol: Normal to slightly elevated
    Triglyceride: Moderately to severely elevated
    Apo C-II either increased or decreased
    Apo B-100 increased
    Type IV hyperlipoproteinemia: Increased VLDL
  10. Name the Hyperlipoproteinemia with these characteristics:
    Serum appearance: Turbid with creamy layer
    Total cholesterol: Slightly to moderately elevated
    Triglyceride: Severely elevated
    Apo C-II increased or decreased
    Apo B-48 increased
    Apo B-100 increased
    Type V hyperlipoproteinemia: Increased VLDL with increased chylomicrons
  11. What is the most common familial form of Lipids and characterized by the type IIa, type IV, type IIb, with apo B increased?
    Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL)
  12. What is the lipid complication that is associated with VLDL and apo B-100 overproduction in the liver?
    Hyperapobetalipoproteinemia
  13. What is the lipid complication that is characterized by a moderate elevation of triglycerides with excess production of VLDL?
    Familial hypertriglyceridemia
  14. What lipid complication is characterized by increased VLDL and chylomicrons?
    Type V hyperlipoproteinemia
  15. What lipid complication is characterized by increased LDL cholesterol?
    Familial hypercholesterolemia
  16. What lipid complication is associated with other diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, obesity, pregnancy, nephrotic syndrome, pancreatitis, alcoholism, and myxedema?
    Secondary lipoproteinemia
  17. What hypolipoproteinemia is characterized by:
    Total cholesterol: very low
    Triglyceride: undetectable
    LDL: absent
    Apo B-100: absent
    Abetalipoproteinemia
  18. What hypolipoproteinemia is characterized by:
    Apo B-100: unable to synthesize
    Apo B-48: unable to synthesize
    Total cholesterol: low
    Triglyceride: low-normal
    Hypobetalipoproteinemia
  19. What hypolipoproteinemia is characterized by:
    Triglyceride: severely elevated
    HDL: low
    Hypoalphalipoproteinemia
  20. What hypolipoproteinemia is characterized by:
    HDL: absent
    Apo A-I: very low
    Apo A-II: very low
    LDL: low
    Total cholesterol: low
    Triglyceride: normal-slightly elevated
    Tangier disease
  21. What exist as short, medium, and long chains of molecules that are major consituents of triglycerides and phopholipids?
    Fatty acids
  22. What is triglyceride formed from?
    One glycerol molecule with 3 fatty acid molecules attached via ester bonds
  23. How are triglycerides transported through the body?
    • Chylomicrons
    • VLDL
  24. What does the metabolism of a triglyceride involve?
    Releasing the fatty acids to the cells for energy, then recycling the glycerol into triglyceride
  25. Name things that can breakdown triglycerides
    • Lipase
    • Lipoprotein lipase
    • Epinephrine
    • Cortisol
  26. How does cholesterol exist?
    • Exists in the esterified form (where a fatty acid forms an ester bond at carbon-3)
    • Free (unesterified) form
  27. What is cholesterol a precursor for synthesis of?
    • Bile acids
    • Steroid hormones
    • Vitamin D
  28. What is the primary carrier of cholesterol?
    LDL
  29. What is phopholipid composed of?
    One glycerol molecule and 2 fatty acid molecules attached via ester bonds
  30. Where are phopholipids found?
    • Surface of lipid layers
    • Major constituents of cell membranes and outer shells of lipoprotein molecules
  31. What are molecules that combine water insoluble dietary lipids and water-soluble proteins (apolipoproteins) so that lipids can be transported throughout the body?
    Lipoproteins
  32. What are the largest lipoproteins and have the lowest density?
    Chylomicrons
  33. What are formed in the intestines and transport triglycerides after a meal - giving the turbid appearance?
    Chylomicrons
  34. Which is composed of:
    86% Triglycerides
    5% Cholesterol
    7% Phospholipid
    2% Apolipoprotein
    Apoprotein B-48, A-I, C-I, C-II, C-III
    Chylomicrons
  35. What carries endogenous triglycerides synthesized in the liver?
    VLDL
  36. What is composed of:
    55% triglycerides
    19% cholesterol
    18% phospholipid
    8% Apolipoprotein
    Apolipoprotein B-100, C-I, C-II, C-III, E
    VLDL
  37. What is a transitional form, as it is formed from VLDL and then further modified in the liver to LDL?
    IDL (Intermediate-density lipoprotein)
  38. What do IDL's have on their surface?
    • Apoliprotein B-100
    • E
  39. What is the body's major cholesterol carrier and transports a large amount of endogenous cholesterol?
    LDL (Low density lipoprotein)
  40. What is composed of
    55% cholesterol
    22% phospholipids
    6% Triglycerides
    22% protein
    Apolipoprotein B-100 on surface
    LDL
  41. What does LDL do in normal lipid metabolism?
    LDL bring cholesterol to peripheral cells for membrane synthesis and formation of adrenal and reproductive hormones
  42. What is known as "good cholesterol"?
    HDL
  43. What is known as "bad cholesterol"?
    LDL
  44. Where is HDL synthesized?
    Intestine and liver cells
  45. What is composed of:
    50% Protein
    28% Phopholipid
    19% Cholesterol
    3% Triglycerides
    Apolipoprotein A-I and A-II
    HDL
  46. What does HDL do in normal lipid metabolism?
    HDL removes excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues and transports it to other catabolic sites (antiatherogenic effect)
  47. What is composed of:
    Cholesterol esters
    Phospholipids
    Apolipoprotein (a)
    B-100
    Lp(a)
  48. What are elevated levels of Lp(a) associated with?
    • Increased risk for coronary heart disease
    • Myocardial infarction
    • Cerebrovascular disease

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