Digestive System Symptoms, Signs, Diseases

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Digestive System Symptoms, Signs, Diseases
2013-03-09 10:21:09
Digestive System Symptoms Signs Diseases

Digestive System Symptoms, Signs, Diseases
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  1. Appendicitis
    inflammation of the appendix, which is usually acute and caused by blockage of the appendix followed by infection...

    appendectomy withing 2 days
  2. ascites
    abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity

    may be a symptom of inflammatory disorders in the abdomen, venous hypertension caused by liver disease or HF
  3. borborygmus
    gurgling and rumbling sound heard over the large intestine that is caused by gas moving through the intestines
  4. cirrhosis
    chronic liver disease characterized by destruction of live cells that eventually leads to ineffective liver function and jaundice
  5. diverticular disease
    condition in which bulging pouches (diverticula) in the GI push the mucosal lining through the surrounding muscle.

    when feces is trapped inside a diverticular sac, it causes inflammation, infection, abdominal pain and fever, a condition known as diverticulitis
  6. dysentery
    inflammation of the intestine, especially of the colon, which may be caused by chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa, or parasites

    comon in underdeveloped areas of the world and in times of disaster and social disorganization when sanitary living conditions, clean food, and safe water are not available.  It is characterized by diarrhea, colitis, and abdominal cramps
  7. fistula
    abnormal passage from one organ to another, or from a hollow organ to the surface

    anal fistula is located near the anus and may open in the rectum
  8. gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
    backflow (reflux) of gastric contents into the esophagus due to malfunction of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES)

    symptoms: heartburn (caused by regurgitation of HCL from stomach to esophagus), belching, and regurgitation of food.

    Treatment: elevating head while sleeping, avoiding alcohol and foods that stimulate acid secretion, and administering drugs to decrease production of acide
  9. hematochezia
    passage of stools containing bright red blood
  10. hemorrhoid (piles)
    mass of enlarged, twisted varicose veins in the mucous membrane inside or outside the rectum
  11. hernia
    protrusion or projection of an organ or a part of an organ through the wall of the cavity that normally contains it

    common areas: diaphragm, inguinal, umbilical (strangulated, hiatal)
  12. inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
    ulceration of the colon mucosa

    crohn disease and ulcerative colitis
  13. chron disease (regional colitis)
    chronic IBD that usually affects the ileum but may affect any portion of the intestinal tract

    inflammatory pattern which tends to be patchy or segmented
  14. ulcerative colitis
    chronic IBD of the colon characterized by episodes of diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and pain
  15. IBS (spastic colon)
    • GI signs and symptoms including:
    • constipation, diarrhea, gas, and bloating, all in absence of organic pathology

    • factors include stress and tension.
    • Treatment consists of dietary modifications, such as avoiding irritating foods or adding a high-fiber diet and laxatives if constipation is a symptom.
  16. jaundice
    yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclerae of the eyes caused by excessive levels of bilirubin in the blood (hyperbilirubinemia)
  17. obesity
    20% or more above ideal body weight
  18. morbid obesity
    BMI over 40 (usually 100 pounds overweight)
  19. polyp
    small, tumorlike, benign growth that projects from a mucous membrane surface.

    can become cancerous, so they are checked frequently or removed.  Colonic polyps have a high likelihood of becoming CA
  20. colonic polyposis
    polyps project from the mucous membrane of the colon
  21. polyposis
    polyps develop in the intestinal tract
  22. ulcer
    open sore or lesion of the skin or mucous membrane accompanied by sloughing of inflamed necrotic tissue

    may be shallow, involving only the epidermis, or it may be deep, involving multiple layers of the skin

    peptic ulcer, duodenal ulcer and pressure ulcer (decubitis)
  23. volvulus
    twisting of the bowel on itself, causing obstruction (usually requires surgery)
  24. Barium enema (BE)
    radiographic examination of the rectum and colon after administration of barium sulfate into the rectum

    used for Dx of obstructions, tumors, or other abnormalities, such as ulcerative colitis
  25. barium swallow (upper GI series)
    radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach and small intestine after oral administration of barium sulfate

    structural abnormalities of the esophagus and vessels, such as esophageal varices, may be diagnosed
  26. CT
    radiographic technique that uses a narrow beam of x-rays that rotates in a full arc around the patient to acquire multiple views of the body that a computer interprets to produce cross-sectional images of that body part

    CT scans are used to view the gallbladder, liver, bile ducts and pancreas and diagnose tumors, cysts, inflammation, abscesses, perforation, bleeding, and obstructions.
  27. endoscopy
    visual examination of a cavity using a specialized lighted instrument called an endoscope.

    a camera and video recorder are commonly used during the procedure to provide a permanent record
  28. UPPER GI endoscopy
    endoscopy of the esophagus (esophagoscopy), stomach (gastroscopy), duodenum (duodenoscopy)
  29. LOWER GI endoscopy
    endoscopy of colon (colonoscopy), sigmoid colon (sigmoidoscopy), and rectum and anus (proctoscopy)
  30. MRI
    radiographic technique that uses electromagnetic energy to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images of the body

    -used to detect abdominal masses and viewing images of abdominal structures
  31. stool guaiac (hemoccult test)
    test performed on feces using the reagent gum guaiac to detect  presence of blood in feces that is not apparent on visual inspection
  32. US
    imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves (US) that bounce off body tissues and are recorded to produce an image of an internal organ or tissue

     US is used to view the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, and pancreas, and others.  It is also used to diagnose digestive disorders, locate cysts and tumors, and guide insertion of instruments during surgical procedures
  33. bariatric surgery
    • procedures that treat morbid obesity
    • vertical banded gastroplasty & Roux-en-Y gastric bybass (RGB)
  34. Vertical banded gastroplasty
    bariatric surgery where upper stomach near the esophagus is stapled vertically to reduce it to a small pouch and a band is inserted that restricts and delays food from leaving the pouch, causing a feeling of fullness
  35. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass
    • -stomach stapled to decrease it to a small pouch
    • -jejunum is shortened and connected to the small stomach pouch, causing the base of the duodenum leading from the nonfunctioning portion of the stomach to form a Y configuration, which decreases the pathway of food through the intestine

    • performed laparoscopically
    • most common weight loss surgery
  36. lithotripsy
    procedure for eliminating a stone withing the gallblader or urinary system by crushing th stone surgically or using a noninvaisive method, such as ultrasonic shock waves to shatter it
  37. extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL)
    use of shock waves as a noninvasive method to destroy stones in the gallbladder and biliary ducts

    US is used to locate the stone and monitor their destruction.  Patient usually undergoes a course of oral dissolution drugs to ensure complete removal of all stones and stone fragments
  38. nasogastric intubation
    insertion of a nasogastric tube through the nose into the stomach

    used to relieve gastric distention by removing gas, gastric secretions, or food.  Also used to instill medication, food, or fluids or obtain a specimen for laboratory analysis